The layout of an integrated circuit (lC) is the process of assigning geometric shape, size and position to the components (transistors and connections) used in its fabrication. Since the number of components in modem ICs is enormous, computer- aided-design (CAD) programs are required to automate the difficult layout process. Prior CAD methods are inexact or limited in scope, and produce layouts whose area, and consequently manufacturing costs, are larger than necessary. This book addresses the problem of minimizing exactly the layout area of an important class of basic IC structures called CMOS cells. First, we precisely define the possible goals in area minimization for such cells, namely width and height minimization, with allowance for area-reducing reordering of transistors. We reformulate the layout problem in terms of a graph model and develop new graph-theoretic concepts that completely characterize the fundamental area minimization problems for series-parallel and nonseries-parallel circuits. These concepts lead to practical algorithms that solve all the basic layout minimization problems exactly, both for a single cell and for a one-dimensional array of such cells. Although a few of these layout problems have been solved or partially solved previously, we present here the first complete solutions to all the problems of interest.
I. Introduction.- 1.1 Problem and Motivation.- 1.2 Layout Styles.- 1.2.1 Semi-Custom Layouts.- 1.2.2 Unstructured Methods.- 1.2.3 Programmable Logic Arrays.- 1.2.4 Gate Matrix Layouts.- 1.2.5 Functional Cells.- 1.3 Functional Cell Optimization.- 1.3.1 Layout Problem.- 1.3.2 Prior Work.- 1.4 Proposed Approach.- 1.4.1 Philosophy.- 1.4.2 Outline of the Book.- II. Functional Cell Layout Methods.- 2.1 Functional Cell Design.- 2.2 Survey of Prior Methods.- 2.2.1 Static Cells.- 2.2.2 Dynamic Cells.- 2.3 Critique of Prior Work.- III. Series-Parallel Cell Width Minimization.- 3.1 Graph Optimization Problems.- 3.2 Theory of Dual Trail Covering.- 3.3 Optimal Trail Covering without Reordering.- 3.4 Optimal Trail Covering with Reordering.- 3.5 Analysis of Complete Class of Practical Cells.- 3.6 Minimum-Width Rows of Cells.- IV. Planar Cell Width Minimization.- 4.1 Nonseries-Parallel Composition.- 4.1.1 Graph Composition.- 4.1.2 Trail Covering.- 4.2 P-TrailTrace Algorithm.- 4.2.1 Description.- 4.2.2 Design Example.- 4.2.3 Optimality.- 4.2.4 Time Complexity.- 4.3 Complete Study of Practical Planar Cells.- V. Single Cell Width and Height Minimization.- 5.1 Layout Problem.- 5.1.1 Constraints and Assumptions.- 5.1.2 Comparison to Other Assumptions.- 5.2 Extension of Series-Parallel Cell Theory.- 5.3 HR-TrailTrace Algorithm.- 5.3.1 Description.- 5.3.2 Design Example.- 5.3.3 Optimality.- 5.3.4 Time Complexity.- 5.4 Complete Study of Practical Cells.- 5.5 Planar Cell Layout.- VI. Cell Array Width and Height Minimization.- 6.1 Layout Problem.- 6.2 HRM-TrailTrace Algorithm.- 6.2.1 Description.- 6.2.2 Design Example.- 6.2.3 Optimality.- 6.2.4 Time Complexity.- 6.3 Experimental Results.- 6.3.1 Commercial Circuits.- 6.3.2 Published Layouts.- VII. Conclusions.- 7.1 Contributions.- 7.2 Practical Applications and Extensions.
Series: Kluwer International Series in Engineering & Computer Science
Number Of Pages: 169
Published: 31st October 1991
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6
Weight (kg): 0.44