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Laser Cooling and Trapping : Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics - Harold J. Metcalf

Laser Cooling and Trapping

Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics

Paperback

Published: 9th November 2001
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Laser cooling is a relatively new technique that has led to insights into the behavior of atoms as well as confirming with striking detail some of the fundamental notions of quantum mechanics, such as the condensation predicted by S.N. Bose. This elegant technique, whereby atoms, molecules, and even microscopic beads of glass, are trapped in small regions of free space by beams of light and subsequently moved at will using other beams, provides a useful research tool for the study of individual atoms and clusters of atoms, for investigating the details of chemical reactions, and even for determining the physical properties of individual macromolecules such as synthetic polymers and DNA. Intended for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students who have some basic knowledge of optics and quantum mechanics, this text begins with a review of the relevant results of quantum mechanics, it then turns to the electromagnetic interactions involved in slowing and trapping atoms and ions, in both magnetic and optical traps. The concluding chapters discuss a broad range of applications, from atomic clocks and studies of collision processes to diffraction and interference of atomic beams at optical lattices and Bose-Einstein condensation.

  From the reviews:

"A strong recommendation for any book in one's own field is to see it written the way you would have written it. This is certainly the case here. If you are a researcher or a teacher in laser cooling and trapping or a related field of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, then this is a must buy text for your bookshelf. And buy one for your students too, because your copy will inevitably disappear." The Physicist

..."For its intended use, which is to guide newcomers into the field of laser cooling and trapping, the book does a superb jobThe book is well placed to evolve with the field for many years to come." Physics Today

 

Forewordp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Introductionp. 1
Review of Quantum Mechanicsp. 3
Time-Dependent Perturbation Theoryp. 3
The Rabi Two-Level Problemp. 4
Light Shiftsp. 7
The Dressed Atom Picturep. 9
The Bloch Vectorp. 11
Adiabatic Rapid Passagep. 12
Excited-State Decay and its Effectsp. 14
The Density Matrixp. 17
Basic Conceptsp. 17
Spontaneous Emissionp. 20
The Optical Bloch Equationsp. 23
Power Broadening and Saturationp. 24
Force on Two-Level Atomsp. 29
Laser Light Pressurep. 29
A Two-Level Atom at Restp. 31
Atoms in Motionp. 34
Traveling Wavep. 34
Standing Wavep. 35
Multilevel Atomsp. 39
Alkali-Metal Atomsp. 39
Metastable Noble Gas Atomsp. 43
Polarization and Interferencep. 45
Angular Momentum and Selection Rulesp. 47
Optical Transitions in Multilevel Atomsp. 50
Introductionp. 50
Radial Partp. 51
Angular Part of the Dipole Matrix Elementp. 52
Fine and Hyperfine Interactionsp. 53
General Properties Concerning Laser Coolingp. 57
Temperature and Thermodynamics in Laser Coolingp. 58
Kinetic Theory and the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributionp. 61
Random Walksp. 63
The Fokker-Planck Equation and Cooling Limitsp. 66
Phase Space and Liouville's Theoremp. 68
Cooling and Trappingp. 71
Deceleration of an Atomic Beamp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Techniques of Beam Decelerationp. 74
Laser Frequency Sweepp. 76
Varying the Atomic Frequency: Magnetic Field Casep. 77
Varying the Atomic Frequency: Electric Field Casep. 77
Varying the Doppler Shift: Diffuse Lightp. 78
Broadband Lightp. 79
Rydberg Atomsp. 79
Measurements and Resultsp. 80
Further Considerationsp. 83
Cooling During Decelerationp. 83
Non-Uniformity of Decelerationp. 84
Transverse Motion During Decelerationp. 85
Optical Pumping During Decelerationp. 86
Optical Molassesp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Low-Intensity Theory for a Two-Level Atom in One Dimensionp. 88
Atomic Beam Collimationp. 90
Low-Intensity Casep. 90
Experiments in One and Two Dimensionsp. 92
Experiments in Three-Dimensional Optical Molassesp. 95
Cooling Below the Doppler Limitp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Linear [perpendicular, bottom] Linear Polarization Gradient Coolingp. 100
Light Shiftsp. 101
Origin of the Damping Forcep. 102
Magnetically Induced Laser Coolingp. 104
[sigma][superscript +]-[sigma][superscript -] Polarization Gradient Coolingp. 106
Theory of Sub-Doppler Laser Coolingp. 107
Optical Molasses in Three Dimensionsp. 111
The Limits of Laser Coolingp. 113
The Recoil Limitp. 113
Cooling Below the Recoil Limitp. 114
Sisyphus Coolingp. 116
Cooling in a Strong Magnetic Fieldp. 118
VSR and Polarization Gradientsp. 120
The Dipole Forcep. 123
Introductionp. 123
Evanescent Wavesp. 124
Dipole Force in a Standing Wave: Optical Molasses at High Intensityp. 126
Atomic Motion Controlled by Two Frequenciesp. 128
Introductionp. 128
Rectification of the Dipole Forcep. 129
The Bichromatic Forcep. 131
Beam Collimation and Slowingp. 135
Magnetic Trapping of Neutral Atomsp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Magnetic Trapsp. 138
Classical Motion of Atoms in a Magnetic Quadrupole Trapp. 140
Simple Picture of Classical Motion in a Trapp. 140
Numerical Calculations of the Orbitsp. 141
Early Experiments with Classical Motionp. 143
Quantum Motion in a Trapp. 145
Heuristic Calculations of the Quantum Motion of Magnetically Trapped Atomsp. 146
Three-Dimensional Quantum Calculationsp. 146
Experiments in the Quantum Domainp. 147
Optical Traps for Neutral Atomsp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Dipole Force Optical Trapsp. 150
Single-Beam Optical Traps for Two-Level Atomsp. 150
Hybrid Dipole Radiative Trapp. 152
Blue Detuned Optical Trapsp. 153
Microscopic Optical Trapsp. 155
Radiation Pressure Trapsp. 156
Magneto-Optical Trapsp. 156
Introductionp. 156
Cooling and Compressing Atoms in a MOTp. 158
Capturing Atoms in a MOTp. 159
Variations on the MOT Techniquep. 162
Evaporative Coolingp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Basic Assumptionsp. 166
The Simple Modelp. 167
Speed and Limits of Evaporative Coolingp. 171
Boltzmann Equationp. 171
Speed of Evaporationp. 171
Limiting Temperaturep. 174
Experimental Resultsp. 175
Applicationsp. 177
Newtonian Atom Optics and its Applicationsp. 179
Introductionp. 179
Atom Mirrorsp. 180
Atom Lensesp. 181
Magnetic Lensesp. 181
Optical Atom Lensesp. 184
Atomic Fountainp. 185
Application to Atomic Beam Brighteningp. 186
Introductionp. 186
Beam-Brightening Experimentsp. 188
High-Brightness Metastable Beamsp. 189
Application to Nanofabricationp. 190
Applications to Atomic Clocksp. 192
Introductionp. 192
Atomic Fountain Clocksp. 193
Application to Ion Trapsp. 194
Application to Non-Linear Opticsp. 195
Ultra-cold Collisionsp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Potential Scatteringp. 200
Ground-state Collisionsp. 204
Excited-state Collisionsp. 207
Trap Loss Collisionsp. 207
Optical Collisionsp. 209
Photo-Associative Spectroscopyp. 213
Collisions Involving Rydberg Statesp. 218
deBroglie Wave Opticsp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Gratingsp. 220
Beam Splittersp. 223
Sourcesp. 224
Mirrorsp. 225
Atom Polarizersp. 226
Application to Atom Interferometryp. 227
Optical Latticesp. 231
Introductionp. 231
Laser Arrangements for Optical Latticesp. 232
Quantum States of Motionp. 235
Band Structure in Optical Latticesp. 238
Quantum View of Laser Coolingp. 239
bose-Einstein Condensationp. 241
Introductionp. 241
The Pathway to BECp. 243
Experimentsp. 244
Observation of BECp. 244
First-Order Coherence Experiments in BECp. 246
Higher-Order Coherence Effects in BECp. 248
Other Experimentsp. 249
Dark Statesp. 251
Introductionp. 251
VSCPT in Two-Level Atomsp. 252
VSCPT in Real Atomsp. 254
Circularly Polarized Lightp. 255
Linearly Polarized Lightp. 257
VSCPT at Momenta Higher Than [plus or minus]hkp. 258
VSCPT and Bragg Reflectionp. 259
Entangled Statesp. 261
Appendicesp. 263
Notation and Definitionsp. 265
Review Articles and Books on Laser Coolingp. 269
Characteristic Datap. 273
Transition Strengthsp. 279
Referencesp. 291
Indexp. 317
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387987286
ISBN-10: 0387987282
Series: Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 324
Published: 9th November 2001
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 15.52  x 1.65
Weight (kg): 0.48
Edition Type: Revised