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Language, Education, and Development : Urban and Rural Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea - Suzanne Romaine

Language, Education, and Development

Urban and Rural Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea

Hardcover Published: 18th June 1992
ISBN: 9780198239666
Number Of Pages: 412

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Papua New Guinea's struggle for development is intimately bound up with the history of Tok Pisin, an English-based pidgin that is the product of nineteenth-century colonialism in the Pacific. The language has since become the most important lingua franca in the region, being spoken by more than a million people in a highly multilingual society. In this book, Romaine examines some of the changes that are taking place in Tok Pisin as it becomes the native language of the younger generation of rural and urban speakers. These linguistic processes, which are by no means complete, have to be understood in the socio-historical context of colonial expansion and strategies for socio-economic development in the post-colonial era.

List of Figures
List of Tables
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Papua New Guinea: the last unknown?p. 9
From colonialism to present-day Papua New Guineap. 11
Colonialism and languagep. 20
Historical Development of Tok Pisinp. 23
Brief linguistic history of Papua New Guinea: the coming of the colonial periodp. 24
Historical sketch of Tok Pisinp. 31
The jargon stage and the origins of Melanesian Pidginp. 31
Stabilization of Melanesian Pidginp. 35
Standardization and expansion of Tok Pisinp. 44
Expansion of Tok Pisin as a written mediump. 49
Expansion of Tok Pisin as a spoken mediump. 51
Varieties of Tok Pisin and their role in Papua New Guinea todayp. 52
Language, Education, and Development: from Pre-Colonial Days to Post-Colonial Societyp. 55
Pre-colonial language and societyp. 56
First contact: colonists, missionaries, and governmentp. 59
Education and developmentp. 69
The mission phasep. 69
The government phasep. 73
Language policy in Papua New Guinea and the politics of national developmentp. 78
Rural vs. urban Papua New Guineap. 86
The urban elitep. 86
Migration and the structure of urban societyp. 89
The linguistic ecology of townsp. 92
Methodsp. 99
Accessibility and choice of fieldsitesp. 99
Fieldsites in Morobe Provincep. 103
The Huon Peninsula: Indagen and Geraoun villages and community schoolsp. 103
The Markham Valley and Waritsian Community Schoolp. 110
Lae: a town in transitionp. 112
Bulolo: from a few camps to gold-fieldsp. 118
Fieldsites in Madang Provincep. 120
The languages of Astrolabe Bay and Erima Community Schoolp. 123
Peri-urban villages and Bahor Community Schoolp. 126
Rempi Community Schoolp. 127
Madang: town and provincep. 128
Field methodsp. 132
The community school as a fieldsitep. 132
The interviewp. 138
The written corpusp. 142
Lexical Expansion, Borrowing and Changep. 145
Sources for lexicalization in Tok Pisinp. 145
New registers and stylistic expansionp. 147
Size of the lexicon and its consequencesp. 149
Semantic generalityp. 150
Multifunctionalityp. 151
Circumlocutionp. 151
Grammaticalization vs. lexicalizationp. 155
Lexical borrowing and its consequencesp. 157
Borrowing in the lexical field of animal termsp. 157
Lexical borrowing and body-part termsp. 164
Conclusionp. 169
Phonological Expansion in a Developing Pidgin/Creolep. 172
Processes of morphophonological condensationp. 172
Variability in Tok Pisin phonologyp. 178
The core phonologyp. 179
Variability in p/fp. 181
Variability in r/lp. 196
Variability in s/sh/chp. 198
Variability between /h/ and [actual symbols not reproducible]p. 203
Summary of phonological variationp. 207
Implications of change for orthography and the phonology of Tok Pisinp. 210
Morphological Variation and Changep. 213
Pronouns and the inclusive/exclusive distinctionp. 213
Plural markingp. 219
Historical development of plural marking in Tok Pisinp. 220
Distribution of plural markingp. 226
Constraints on the introduction of plural markingp. 234
Competition in plural markingp. 240
Syntactic Changep. 244
Bai as a marker of futurity: a case of grammaticalization in progressp. 244
The syntactic distribution of baip. 248
Syntactic development of bai in historical and comparative perspectivep. 252
Semantic development of baip. 260
Evaluation of the claims made by Bybee et al. in relation to baimbai and baip. 271
Creolization and grammaticalization of baip. 273
The predicate marker: a case of degrammaticalization in progressp. 275
The predicate marker before and after TMA markersp. 275
Relative clausesp. 284
Relativization as an index of language developmentp. 285
Focus and embedding as factors in relativizationp. 289
Relativization strategiesp. 294
Some diachronic and comparative considerations on the evolution of strategies of relativizationp. 306
Universals vs. substratum influence on syntactic developments in Tok Pisinp. 309
Tok Pisin i go we? (Where is Tok Pisin going?)p. 318
The debate on language policy and standardizationp. 318
Strategies for developmentp. 332
'The Melanesian Way': fragmentation or unity?p. 338
Referencesp. 344
Indexp. 371
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780198239666
ISBN-10: 0198239661
Series: Oxford Studies in Language Contact
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 412
Published: 18th June 1992
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.2 x 16.2  x 2.8
Weight (kg): 0.8