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Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia : Environmental Science - Gerhard Gerold

Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia

Environmental Science

By: Gerhard Gerold (Editor), Michael Fremerey (Editor), Edi Guhardja (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 12th November 2003
ISBN: 9783540006039
Number Of Pages: 533

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Southeast Asia constitutes one of the world's most extended rainforest regions. It is characterized by a high degree of biodiversity and contains a large variety of endemic species. Moreover, these forests provide a number of important and sin­ gular ecosystem services, like erosion protection and provision of high quality wa­ ter, which cannot be replaced by alternative ecosystems. However, various forms of encroachment, mostly those made by human interventions, seriously threaten the continuance of rainforests in this area. There is ample evidence that the rainforest resources, apart from large scale commercial logging, are exposed to danger particularly from its margin areas. These areas, which are characterized by intensive man-nature interaction, have been identified as extremely fragile systems. The dynamic equilibrium that bal­ ances human needs and interventions on the one hand, and natural regeneration capacity on the other, is at stake. The decrease of rainforest resources is, to a sub­ stantial degree, connected with the destabilization of these systems. Accordingly, the search for measures and processes, which prevent destabilization and promote stability is regarded as imperative. This refers to both the human and the natural part of the forest margin ecosystem.

List of Contributing Authorsp. XXI
List of Editorsp. XXXI
Social and Economic Development and Changep. 1
Policy Options for Stabilising the Forest Frontier: A Global Perspectivep. 3
Introductionp. 3
Definitions: Deforestation and Forest Degradationp. 4
Deforestationp. 4
Frontier Deforestationp. 4
Forest Degradationp. 5
Theoretical Frameworkp. 6
Economic Models of Tropical Deforestationp. 8
Effects of Price Changesp. 9
Factors Affecting Costsp. 9
Land Tenurep. 10
The Role of Agricultural Technologyp. 11
Comparing Macro-Economic Linksp. 13
The General Picture: Economic Growth and Povertyp. 14
The Role of Trade and Foreign-Exchange Inflowsp. 14
What Policies Hurt Forests?p. 15
What Policies Protect Forests?p. 16
What Does This Mean for Indonesia?p. 18
Screening the Main Deforestation Driversp. 18
New Order Policies and Development Strategiesp. 19
Forest Lost and Convertedp. 19
Conclusion and Policy Recommendationsp. 21
Reduce Land Extensificationp. 22
Create a Conservation-Conducive Macro-Level Contextp. 22
Referencesp. 23
Forest Margin Protection and Community Involvementp. 27
Introductionp. 27
Conversion of Forest Areasp. 28
Illegal Loggingp. 29
Government Initiativesp. 30
NGOs Rolep. 30
Social Organizationp. 31
Forest Firesp. 32
Community Forestryp. 33
Conclusionp. 33
References and Other Literature that was Consultedp. 34
Historical Impacts on Use and Management of Natural Resources in the Rainforest Margins of Central Sulawesip. 39
Introductionp. 39
The Theoretical Approach on Cultural Landscapep. 40
Methodologyp. 42
Regional Demographic Overviewp. 44
The Core Phases of Historical Impactsp. 48
Pre-Colonial Periodp. 48
Dutch Rulep. 48
Japanese Rulep. 51
Independencep. 51
The Regional Differentiation of Historical Impacts on Sub District and Village Level - Two Examplesp. 53
Characteristics of Kulawip. 53
Characteristics of Palolop. 56
Discussion and Conclusionp. 59
Referencesp. 62
Robo and the Water Buffalo: The Lost Souls of the Pekurehua of the Napu Valleyp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Methodological Considerationsp. 68
Research Sitep. 69
Adaptation System of the Direct Pastp. 70
The Robo Social Organizationp. 72
Definition of Robop. 72
Robo Membership and Leadershipp. 73
Robo as a Mutual-Help Organizationp. 75
Robo as Center of Social and Ritual Lifep. 76
The Role of the Robo in Strengthening the Social Structurep. 77
The Water Buffalop. 78
Tenure and System of Husbandryp. 78
The Water Buffalo in the Production Systemp. 80
The Water Buffalo in the Social and Ritual Lifep. 80
The Role in Maintaining the Social Structurep. 82
The End of the Robo and Water Buffalop. 84
Discussionp. 85
Referencesp. 88
Orang Kampung and Pendatang: Analysis of Demographic Structure and Migration in Two Forest-Margin Villages, Central Sulawesip. 89
Introductionp. 89
Setting of Researchp. 90
Methodsp. 91
Resultsp. 92
Conclusionp. 102
Referencesp. 103
"Revolusi cokelat": Social Formation, Agrarian Structure, and Forest Margins in Upland Sulawesi, Indonesiap. 105
Introductionp. 105
Sintuwu: A Multi-Ethnic Villagep. 106
"Revolusi Cokelat": The Change of Social Formationp. 108
Structural Change: "New Landed" and "New Landless"p. 111
Forest Margins: Alternative Bases of Socio-Economic Securityp. 114
Concluding Remarksp. 116
Referencesp. 118
Traditional Land Tenure among the Black Thai and its Implication on the Land Allocation in Yen Chau District, Son La Province, Northwest Vietnamp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Material and Methodsp. 120
Development of the Traditional Land Tenure System from 1900 to De-collectivisationp. 122
The Land Allocation Process - Equity Issuesp. 124
Main Stakeholders in the Land Allocation Process - Institutional Pluralismp. 126
Outcome of the Land Allocation Process - Coexistence between Traditional and Official Tenure Systemsp. 128
Conclusions and Outlookp. 132
Acknowledgementsp. 133
Referencesp. 133
Local Ethnic Minority Networks for Sustainable Resource Management: The Pang Ma Pha Hilltribe Network Organization in Northern Thailandp. 135
Preliminary Remarksp. 135
Networks and Networkingp. 136
Definitionp. 136
Types of Networksp. 136
Benefits of Networksp. 137
The Pang Ma Pha Hilltribe Network Organization (Mae Hong Son Province, Northern Thailand)p. 139
Backgroundp. 139
The PMP Network Historyp. 141
The PMP Network Todayp. 142
Challenges and Lessons Learned - An Evaluationp. 143
Establishing Objectives and Activitiesp. 143
Membership, Steering Committee and the Challenge of Dominationp. 144
Participation and Legitimacyp. 146
Fundingp. 148
Non-financial Support and Linkagesp. 150
Development Stagesp. 152
Monitoring and Evaluationp. 153
Political Potentials and Constraintsp. 154
Conclusionsp. 155
Referencesp. 156
Creating Political Capital to Promote Devolution in the Forestry Sector - A Case Study of the Forest Communities in Banyumas District, Central Java, Indonesiap. 159
Introductionp. 159
Theoretical Frameworkp. 160
The Concept of Social Capitalp. 160
The Concept of Political Capitalp. 161
Using Social Capital to create Political Capitalp. 162
Research Area and Methodsp. 162
Profile of the Research Areap. 162
Methodsp. 163
Forest Management Problems and the Struggle for Devolutionp. 163
Problems of Forest Management in Banyumas Districtp. 163
The Struggle for Devolutionp. 165
Analysis of the Policy Processp. 166
Social Capital of the Proponentsp. 166
Social Capital of the Opponentsp. 167
The Creation of Political Capitalp. 168
Political Capital of the Proponentsp. 170
Political Capital of the Proponentsp. 171
Political Capital of the Opponentsp. 172
Discussionp. 173
Concluding Remarksp. 175
Referencesp. 175
Does Technical Progress in Agriculture have a Forest Saving or a Forest Clearing Effect? Theory and Evidence from Central Sulawesip. 179
Introductionp. 179
Agriculture, Technology and Deforestation in the Lore Lindu Regionp. 180
Datap. 180
Land Use Dynamicsp. 180
Agricultural Technologyp. 183
A Model of Agricultural Land Allocation with Lowland-Upland Dichotomyp. 185
The Analytical Frameworkp. 185
The Effect of Technical Progress on Land Use at Forest Marginsp. 187
Other Factors Influencing Land Use at Forest Marginsp. 187
Relaxing the Land Constraintp. 188
Summaryp. 188
Empirical Analysisp. 188
Resultsp. 191
Discussionp. 193
Driving Forces of Agricultural Land Expansion at Forest Marginsp. 193
Policy Implicationsp. 194
Conclusionp. 194
Acknowledgementsp. 195
Referencesp. 195
Encroachments on Primary Forests: Are They Really Driven by Despair?p. 199
Introductionp. 199
The Research Area and Data Collectionp. 200
Quantifying Despair with Linear Programmingp. 203
Construction of Policy Scenariosp. 206
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 212
Referencesp. 214
Biodiversity and Conservationp. 215
Rain Forest Margins and their Dynamics in South-East Ethiopiap. 217
Introductionp. 217
The Study Areap. 218
Methodsp. 221
Results: The Present Situation at the Lower and the Upper Forest Margin of the Munessa Forest Area and its Dynamicsp. 224
Conclusionsp. 236
Acknowledgementsp. 236
Referencesp. 237
Forest Resource Use by People in Protected Areas and its Implications for Biodiversity Conservation: The Case of Bandhavgarh National Park in Indiap. 239
Introductionp. 239
Study Area and Data Collectionp. 241
Resource Utilizationp. 242
Implications for PA Managementp. 245
Need for Alternativesp. 246
Conclusionp. 250
Acknowledgementsp. 251
Referencesp. 251
Land-Use Change, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in West Kalimantanp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Methodsp. 253
Resultsp. 254
Long-Term Effects of Shifting Cultivationp. 254
Effects of Current Land-Use Changep. 257
Discussionp. 259
Historic Rainforest Conversionp. 261
Implications of Current Land-Use Changep. 263
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in a Changing Landscapep. 264
Conclusionsp. 265
Historical Rainforest Conversionp. 265
Current Land-Use Alternativesp. 265
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in a Changing Landscapep. 265
Referencesp. 266
Tree Composition in Secondary Forest of Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesiap. 269
Introductionp. 269
Material and Methodsp. 269
Results and Discussionp. 270
Keywordsp. 272
Acknowledgmentsp. 272
Referencesp. 272
Effects of Land Use on Butterfly Communities at the Rain Forest Margin: A Case Study from Central Sulawesip. 281
Introductionp. 281
Study Area and Site Selectionp. 282
Methodsp. 283
Butterfliesp. 283
Food Plantsp. 284
Habitat Parametersp. 284
Statisticsp. 285
Resultsp. 285
Butterfly Abundance and Species Richnessp. 285
Endemic vs. Non-Endemic Speciesp. 286
Monophagous vs. Polyphagous Speciesp. 286
Butterfly Species Richness and Habitat Structurep. 288
Discussionp. 291
Butterfly Diversity vs. Land Usep. 291
Effect of Forest Disturbance and Land Use on Endemic Speciesp. 291
Butterfly Species Richness vs. Habitat Parametersp. 292
Conservation Aspectsp. 292
Acknowledgementsp. 293
Keywordsp. 293
Referencesp. 293
Losing Ground but Still Doing Well - Tarsius dianae in Human-Altered Rainforests of Central Sulawesi, Indonesiap. 299
Introductionp. 299
Materials and Methodsp. 300
Study Objectsp. 300
Study Site and Methodologyp. 301
Resultsp. 302
Disturbance Index Dt for Five Habitats in 2001p. 302
Population Densities along a Gradient of Human Disturbancep. 304
Population Densities in 1998 and in 2001p. 304
Discussionp. 307
Usefulness of the Disturbance Index Dip. 307
Population Densities along a Gradient of Human Disturbancep. 307
Population Densities in 1998 and in 2001p. 308
Conclusionp. 309
Acknowledgementsp. 310
Referencesp. 310
Home Range, Diet and Behaviour of the Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkeana) in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesip. 313
Introductionp. 313
Methodsp. 314
Study Sitep. 314
Data Collectionp. 315
Resultsp. 315
Group Size and Compositionp. 315
Home Range and Daily Path Lengthsp. 315
Dietp. 316
Activity Budget and Behaviourp. 316
Discussionp. 320
Group Size and Compositionp. 320
Home Range and Daily Path Lengthp. 321
Dietp. 321
Activity Budget and Behaviourp. 322
Conclusionp. 322
Recommendationsp. 323
Acknowledgmentsp. 323
Referencesp. 324
Predicting Losses of Bird Species from Deforestation in Central Sulawesip. 327
Introductionp. 327
Study Areap. 328
Methodsp. 328
Bird Community and Altitudinal Range Datap. 328
Digital Elevation and Remote Sensing Datap. 329
Predicting Extinctionsp. 330
Resultsp. 331
Habitat, Geographic Range and Altitudinal Distribution of Bird Speciesp. 331
Extent of Closed Forest below 1,200 mp. 333
Predicting Species Lossesp. 334
Discussionp. 335
Predicting Species Loss from Deforestationp. 335
Empirical Evidence of Bird Extinctions after Fragmentationp. 336
Which Species are Most Threatened?p. 336
Conclusionp. 337
Acknowledgementsp. 338
Keywordsp. 338
Referencesp. 338
Water and Nutrient Cycles, Land-Use Systems and Modellingp. 351
The Effects of Rainforest Conversion on Water Balance, Water Yield and Seasonal Flows in a Small Tropical Catchment in Central Sulawesi, Indonesiap. 353
Introductionp. 353
Methodologyp. 355
General Site Descriptionp. 355
Experimental Watershed with Catchment Sectionsp. 356
Experimental Design and Data Analysesp. 356
Results and Discussionp. 358
Precipitationp. 358
Runoffp. 358
Water Yield Changesp. 361
Evapotranspirationp. 362
Conclusionp. 363
Acknowledgementsp. 363
Referencesp. 364
Water Tenure in Highland Watersheds of Northern Thailand: Tragedy of the Commons or Successful Management of Complexity?p. 367
Introductionp. 367
Common-Pool Resources and Property Regimes - Theoretical Considerationsp. 368
Misconceptions of Common-Pool Resourcesp. 368
Complexity of Water Rights and Legal Pluralismp. 369
Case Study of Mae Sa Watershed, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailandp. 370
Material and Methodsp. 370
Management of Water Resources at the Community and Farm Household Levelp. 371
External Interventions in Water Management and Upstream-Downstream Water Competitionp. 384
Conclusionsp. 388
Acknowledgementp. 389
Referencesp. 389
Growth and Phosphorus Nutrition of Maize in Pot and Field Experiments as Affected by other Plants Grown in Association or in Rotationp. 391
Introductionp. 391
Materials and Methodsp. 392
Pot Experimentsp. 392
Field Experimentp. 394
Results and Discussionp. 394
Mixed -Croppingp. 394
Rotationp. 401
Referencesp. 405
Adaptability Analysis and Risk Assessment of N Fertilizer Application to Maize in the Napu Valley of Central Sulawesi, Indonesiap. 409
Introductionp. 409
Materials and Methodsp. 410
On-Farm Experimentationp. 410
Parametersp. 411
ANOVA and Linear Contrastsp. 411
Adaptability Analysisp. 411
Risk Assessment of Mean Grain Yieldp. 414
Probability of Yield Falling Below a Critical Levelp. 414
Probability of One Treatment Outperforming Another Onep. 414
Resultsp. 415
ANOVA and Linear Contrastsp. 415
Adaptability Analysisp. 415
Risk Assessment of Mean Grain Yieldsp. 416
Probability of Yield Falling Below a Critical Levelp. 419
Probability of One Technology Outperforming Another Technologyp. 422
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 422
Referencesp. 426
Characterisation of Biodiversity in Improved Rubber Agroforests in West-Kalimantan, Indonesia: Real and Potential Uses for Spontaneous Plantsp. 427
Introduction: The Improvement of Jungle Rubberp. 427
Methodologyp. 428
Transect Methodp. 428
Statistical Analysis: The Use of Correspondence Analysisp. 429
Assessment of the Biodiversity under Rubber Agroforestry Systems: A Comparison between Jungle Rubber and RAS n°1 & 3p. 430
Conclusion: Market Potentialp. 437
Referencesp. 438
Traditional Forest Gardens in Central Sulawesi: A Sustainable Land Use System?p. 445
Introductionp. 445
Methodologyp. 445
Selection of Study Sitesp. 446
Structural Analyses in Forest Gardens and Natural Forestsp. 447
Analysis of Traditional Knowledge of Forest Gardensp. 447
Resultsp. 449
Species Diversityp. 449
Stand Basal Areap. 449
Diameter Distributionp. 450
Dead Treesp. 450
Species Composition and Usep. 453
Genesis and Development of Forest Gardensp. 454
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 456
Acknowledgementsp. 458
Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Forest Plantations and Secondary Rainforests: The Functional Role of Biodiversityp. 461
Introductionp. 461
Key Issuesp. 461
Establishing Plantations in the Tropicsp. 461
Biodiversity in Tropical Forestsp. 462
Forest Restorationp. 462
Scope of the Studyp. 463
Study Sites and Methodsp. 463
Resultsp. 465
Vegetationp. 465
Forest Biomassp. 466
Forest Productionp. 466
Decomposition Processesp. 466
Fine Root Dynamicsp. 466
Nutrient Dynamicsp. 467
Discussionp. 467
Ecosystem Functioning in Plantations and Natural Rainforestsp. 467
The Role of Diversity in Ecosystem Functioningp. 469
Conclusionp. 471
Acknowledgementsp. 471
Referencesp. 471
The Use of Models to Assess the Impact of Land Use Change on Ecological Processes: Case-Studies of Deforestation in South-East Asiap. 475
Introductionp. 475
Land Use Change Modellingp. 476
Applicationsp. 479
Location of the Case Studiesp. 479
Land Use Change Simulations for the Selangor River Basin, Malaysiap. 480
Land Use Change Simulations for Sibuyan Island, the Philippinesp. 483
Effects of Changes in Land Use Pattern on Forest Fragmentation for Sibuyan Islandp. 487
Discussionp. 490
Conclusionsp. 491
Acknowledgementsp. 492
Referencesp. 492
Agricultural Intensification, Population Growth and Forest Cover Change: Evidence from Spatially Explicit Land Use Modeling in the Central Highlands of Vietnamp. 495
Introductionp. 495
Trends in Population, Agricultural Growth, and Land Use in the Research Areap. 496
Methodologyp. 497
Conceptual Frameworkp. 497
Sources and Methods Used for Collecting Datap. 499
Integration of Village and Remotely Sensed Datap. 502
Expected Effects of Regressorsp. 503
Models and Resultsp. 508
Descriptive Statisticsp. 508
Multinomial Logitp. 509
Empirical Resultsp. 509
Discussion and Policy Implicationsp. 512
Acknowledgementsp. 514
Referencesp. 515
Postscriptp. 521
Between Difference and Synergy: Cultural Issues in an International Research Schemep. 523
Introductionp. 523
Culture as Orientation Systemp. 524
Intercultural Problems: The Challenge of Culture Contactsp. 525
Indonesia and Germany: Basic Cultural Valuesp. 526
Optimizing the Advantages of Intercultural Work Groupsp. 529
Conclusionsp. 531
Referencesp. 532
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540006039
ISBN-10: 3540006036
Series: Environmental Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 533
Published: 12th November 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 29.7 x 21.0  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 2.16

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