It is well known that the interactions between land surfaces and the atmosphere, and the resulting exchanges in water and energy have a tremendous affect on climate. The inadequate representation of land-atmosphere interactions is a major weakness in current climate models, and is providing the motivation for the HAPEX and ISLSCP experiments as well as the proposed Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. The inadequate representation reflects the recognition that the well-known phys- ical relationships, which are well described at small scales, result in different relationships when represented at the scales used in climate models. Understanding this transition in the mathematical relationships with increased space-time scales appears to be very difficult, and has led to different approaches; at one extreme, the famous "bucket" model where the land-surface is a simple one layer storage without vegetation; the other extreme may be Seller's Simple Biosphere Model (Sib) where one big leaf covers the climate model grid.
Given the heterogeneous nature of landforms, soils and vegetation within a climate model grid, the development of new land surface parameterizations, and their verification through large scale experiments is perceived to be a challenging area of research for the hydrology and meteorology communities. This book evolved from a workshop held at Princeton University to explore the status of land surface parameterizations within climate models, and how observa- tional data can be used to assess these parameterizations and improve models.
` This collection of articles should be required reading for anyone interested in modeling land-surface processes and relating them to the large-scale atmospheric circulation. '
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73:3 (1992)
I Observations and Observational Needs.- 1. Insight from Large-Scale Observational Studies of Land/Atmosphere Interactions.- 2. Some Aspects of the HAPEX-MOBILHY Programme: The Data Base and the Modelling Strategy.- 3. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Contribution to Hydrological Variables.- 4. Modeling and Observing Land-Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on Large Scales.- 5. Land Surface Hydrology in a General Circulation Model - Global and Regional Fields Needed for Validation.- 6. Simulation of Daily Precipitation in the Pacific Northwest Using a Weather Classification Scheme.- II Modeling and Analysis.- 7. A Refinement of the Combination Equations for Evaporation.- 8. A Statistical-Dynamical Approach to Parameterize Subgrid-Scale Land-Surface Heterogeneity in Climate Models.- 9. Evapotranspiration and Runoff from Large Land Areas: Land Surface Hydrology for Atmospheric General Circulation Models.- 10. Climate and the Equilibrium State of Land Surface Hydrology Parameterizations.- 11. Partial Analysis Applied to Scale Problems in Surface Moisture Fluxes.- 12. Distributed Parameterization of Complex Terrain.- 13. Modeling Basin-Scale Hydrology in Support of Physical Climate and Global Biogeochemical Studies: An Example Using the Zambezi River.- List of Authors.
Series: Reprinted from Surveys in Geophysics, Vol 12, Nos 1-3
Number Of Pages: 314
Published: 31st December 1990
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51
Weight (kg): 0.73
Edition Number: 12