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JOHNSON : HIGH SPEED SIG PROPAGTN _c1 - Howard W. Johnson

JOHNSON

HIGH SPEED SIG PROPAGTN _c1

Hardcover

Published: 6th March 2003
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"High-Speed Signal Propagation: Advanced Black Magic" brings together state-of-the-art techniques for building digital devices that can transmit faster and farther than ever before. Dr. Howard Johnson presents brand-new examples and design guidance, and a complete, unified theory of signal propagation for all metallic media. Coverage includes: understanding signal impairments; managing speed/distance tradeoffs; differential signaling; inter-cabinet connections; clock distribution; simulation, and much more.

Prefacep. xxi
Glossary of Symbolsp. xxvii
Fundamentalsp. 1
Impedance of Linear, Time-Invariant, Lumped-Element Circuitsp. 1
Power Ratiosp. 2
Rules of Scalingp. 5
Scaling of Physical Sizep. 6
Power Scalingp. 9
Time Scalingp. 10
Impedance Scaling with Constant Voltagep. 12
Dielectric-Constant Scalingp. 14
Magnetic Permeability Scalingp. 15
The Concept of Resonancep. 16
Extra for Experts: Maximal Linear System Response to a Digital Inputp. 22
Transmission Line Parametersp. 29
Telegrapher's Equationsp. 31
So Good It Works on Barbed Wirep. 34
The No-Storage Principle and Its Implications for Returning Signal Currentp. 35
Derivation of Telegrapher's Equationsp. 38
Definition of Characteristic Impedance ZCp. 39
Changes in Characteristic Impedancep. 40
Calculation of Impedance Zc From Parameters R, L, G, And Cp. 41
Definition of Propagation Coefficient [gamma]p. 44
Calculation of Propagation Coefficient [gamma] from Parameters R, L, G, and Cp. 46
Ideal Transmission Linep. 48
DC Resistancep. 55
DC Conductancep. 57
Skin Effectp. 58
What Causes the Skin Effect, and What Does It Have to Do With Skin?p. 58
Eddy Currents within a Conductorp. 61
High and Low-Frequency Approximations for Series Resistancep. 63
Skin-Effect Inductancep. 66
Modeling Internal Impedancep. 67
Practical Modeling of Internal Impedancep. 70
Special Issues Concerning Rectangular Conductorsp. 73
Concentric-Ring Skin-Effect Modelp. 75
Modeling Skin Effectp. 76
Regarding Modeling Skin Effectp. 79
Proximity Effectp. 79
Proximity Factorp. 81
Proximity Effect for Coaxial Cablesp. 84
Proximity Effect for Microstrip and Stripline Circuitsp. 85
Last Words on Proximity Effectp. 85
Surface Roughnessp. 90
Severity of Surface Roughnessp. 90
Onset of Roughness Effectp. 91
Roughness of PCB Materialsp. 91
Controlling Roughnessp. 92
Dielectric Effectsp. 94
Dielectric Loss Tangentp. 98
Rule of Mixturesp. 99
Calculating the Loss Tangent for a Uniform Dielectric Mixturep. 101
Calculating the Loss Tangent When You Don't Know qp. 103
Causality and the Network Function Relationsp. 105
Finding [vertical bar]er[vertical bar] to Match a Measured Loss Tangentp. 110
Kramers-Kronig Relationsp. 114
Complex Magnetic Permeabilityp. 115
Impedance in Series with the Return Pathp. 115
Slow-Wave Mode On-Chipp. 117
Performance Regionsp. 121
Signal Propagation Modelp. 121
Extracting Parameters for RLGC Simulatorsp. 127
Hierarchy of Regionsp. 128
A Transmission Line Is Always a Transmission Linep. 130
Necessary Mathematics: Input Impedance and Transfer Functionp. 132
Lumped-Element Regionp. 135
Boundary of Lumped-Element Regionp. 136
Pi Modelp. 137
Taylor-Series Approximation of H (Lumped-Element Region)p. 139
Input impedance (Lumped-Element Region)p. 140
Transfer Function (Lumped-Element Region)p. 143
Step Response (Lumped-Element Region)p. 145
RC Regionp. 148
Boundary of RC Regionp. 149
Input Impedance (RC Region)p. 151
Characteristic Impedance (RC Region)p. 152
General Behavior within RC Regionp. 153
Propagation Coefficient (RC Region)p. 155
Transfer Function (RC Region)p. 155
Normalized Step Response (RC Region)p. 157
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (RC Region)p. 159
Closed-Form Solution for Step Response (RC Region)p. 159
Elmore Delay Estimation (RC Region)p. 160
LC Region (Constant-Loss Region)p. 166
Boundary of LC Regionp. 166
Characteristic Impedance (LC Region)p. 167
Influence of Series Resistance on TDR Measurementsp. 169
Propagation Coefficient (LC Region)p. 173
Possibility of Severe Resonance within the LC Regionp. 176
Terminating an LC Transmission Linep. 179
Tradeoffs Between Distance And Speed (LC Region)p. 183
Mixed-Mode Operation (LC and RC Regions)p. 184
Skin-Effect Regionp. 185
Boundary of Skin-Effect Regionp. 185
Characteristic Impedance (Skin-Effect Region)p. 186
Influence of Skin-Effect on TDR Measurementp. 188
Propagation Coefficient (Skin-Effect Region)p. 189
Possibility of Severe Resonance within Skin-Effect Regionp. 193
Step Response (Skin-Effect Region)p. 195
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (Skin-Effect Region)p. 199
Dielectric Loss Regionp. 200
Boundary of Dielectric-Loss-Limited Regionp. 200
Characteristic Impedance (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)p. 202
Influence of Dielectric Loss on TDR Measurementp. 205
Propagation Coefficient (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)p. 206
Possibility of Severe Resonance within Dielectric-Loss Limited Regionp. 210
Step Response (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)p. 212
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (Dielectric-Loss Region)p. 216
Waveguide Dispersion Regionp. 216
Boundary of Waveguide-Dispersion Regionp. 217
Summary of Breakpoints Between Regionsp. 218
Equivalence Principle for Transmission Mediap. 221
Scaling Copper Transmission Mediap. 224
Scaling Multimode Fiber-Optic Cablesp. 229
Linear Equalization: Long Backplane Trace Examplep. 230
Adaptive Equalization: Accelerant Networks Transceiverp. 234
Frequency-Domain Modelingp. 237
Going Nonlinearp. 237
Approximations to the Fourier Transformp. 239
Discrete Time Mappingp. 241
Other Limitations of the FFTp. 243
Normalizing the Output of an FFT Routinep. 243
Deriving the DFT Normalization Factorsp. 244
Useful Fourier Transform-Pairsp. 245
Effect of Inadequate Sampling Ratep. 247
Implementation of Frequency-Domain Simulationp. 249
Embellishmentsp. 251
What if a Large Bulk-Transport Delay Causes the Waveform to Slide Off the end of the Time-Domain Window?p. 251
How Do I Transform an Arbitrary Data Sequence?p. 251
How Do I Shift the Time-Domain Waveforms?p. 252
What If I Want to Model a More Complicated System?p. 252
What About Differential Modeling?p. 252
Checking the Output of Your FFT Routinep. 253
Pcb (printed-circuit board) Tracesp. 255
Pcb Signal Propagationp. 257
Characteristic Impedance and Delayp. 257
Resistive Effectsp. 258
Dielectric Effectsp. 268
Mixtures of Skin Effect and Dielectric Lossp. 281
Non-TEM Modesp. 282
Limits to Attainable Distancep. 288
SONET Data Codingp. 291
Pcb Noise and Interferencep. 294
Pcb: Reflectionsp. 294
Pcb Crosstalkp. 318
Pcb Connectorsp. 326
Mutual Understandingp. 326
Through-Hole Clearancesp. 328
Measuring Connectorsp. 330
Tapered Transitionsp. 332
Straddle-Mount Connectorsp. 335
Cable Shield Groundingp. 336
Modeling Viasp. 338
Incremental Parameters of a Viap. 338
Three Models for a Viap. 341
Dangling Viasp. 343
Capacitance Datap. 345
Inductance Datap. 351
The Future of On-Chip Interconnectionsp. 359
Differential Signalingp. 363
Single-Ended Circuitsp. 363
Two-Wire Circuitsp. 368
Differential Signalingp. 370
Differential and Common-Mode Voltages and Currentsp. 374
Differential and Common-Mode velocityp. 376
Common-Mode Balancep. 377
Common-Mode Rangep. 378
Differential to Common-Mode Conversionp. 378
Differential Impedancep. 380
Relation Between Odd-Mode and Uncoupled Impedancep. 383
Why the Odd-Mode Impedance Is Always Less Than the Uncoupled Impedancep. 383
Differential Reflectionsp. 384
Pcb Configurationsp. 385
Differential (Microstrip) Trace Impedancep. 386
Edge-Coupled Striplinep. 389
Breaking Up a Pairp. 397
Broadside-Coupled Striplinep. 399
PCB Applicationsp. 404
Matching to an External, Balanced Differential Transmission Mediump. 404
Defeating ground bouncep. 405
Reducing EMI with Differential Signalingp. 405
Punching Through a Noisy Connectorp. 407
Reducing Clock Skewp. 409
Reducing Local Crosstalkp. 411
A Good Reference about Transmission Linesp. 413
Differential Clocksp. 413
Differential Terminationp. 414
Differential U-Turnp. 417
Your Layout Is Skewedp. 419
Buying Timep. 420
Intercabinet Applicationsp. 422
Ribbon-Style Twisted-Pair Cablesp. 423
Immunity to Large Ground Shiftsp. 424
Rejection of External Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI)p. 426
Differential Receivers Have Superior Tolerance to Skin Effect and Other High-Frequency Lossesp. 427
LVDS Signalingp. 429
Output Levelsp. 429
Common-Mode Outputp. 430
Common-Mode Noise Tolerancep. 430
Differential-Mode Noise Tolerancep. 431
Hysteresisp. 431
Impedance Controlp. 432
Trace Radiationp. 435
Risetimep. 435
Input Capacitancep. 435
Skewp. 435
Fail-Safep. 436
Generic Building-Cabling Standardsp. 439
Generic Cabling Architecturep. 442
SNR Budgetingp. 446
Glossary of Cabling Termsp. 446
Preferred Cable Combinationsp. 449
FAQ: Building-Cabling Practicesp. 449
Crossover Wiringp. 451
Plenum-Rated Cablesp. 452
Laying cables in an Uncooled Attic Spacep. 453
FAQ: Older Cable Typesp. 453
100-Ohm Balanced Twisted-Pair Cablingp. 457
UTP Signal Propagationp. 459
UTP Modelingp. 460
Adapting the Metallic-Transmission Modelp. 462
UTP Transmission Example: 10BASE-Tp. 465
UTP Noise and Interferencep. 471
UTP: Far-End Reflectionsp. 471
UTP: Near-End Reflectionsp. 475
UTP: Hybrid Circuitsp. 481
UTP: Near-End Crosstalkp. 487
UTP: Alien crosstalkp. 490
UTP: Far-End Crosstalkp. 490
Power sum NEXT and ELFEXTp. 493
UTP: Radio-Frequency Interferencep. 493
UTP: Radiationp. 496
UTP Connectorsp. 497
Issues with Screeningp. 501
Category-3 UTP at Elevated Temperaturep. 502
150-Ohm STP-A Cablingp. 505
150-[Omega] STP-A Signal Propagationp. 506
150-[Omega] STP-A Noise and Interferencep. 506
150-[Omega] STP-A: Skewp. 507
150-[Omega] STP-A: Radiation and Safetyp. 508
150-[Omega] STP-A: Comparison with UTPp. 509
150-[Omega] STP-A Connectorsp. 509
Coaxial Cablingp. 513
Coaxial Signal Propagationp. 515
Stranded Center-Conductorsp. 522
Why 50 Ohms?p. 523
50-Ohm Mailbagp. 526
Coaxial Cable Noise and Interferencep. 528
Coax: Far-End Reflected Noisep. 528
Coax: Radio Frequency Interferencep. 529
Coax: Radiationp. 529
Coaxial Cable: Safety Issuesp. 530
Coaxial Cable Connectorsp. 532
Fiber-Optic Cablingp. 537
Making Glass Fiberp. 538
Finished Core Specificationsp. 539
Cabling the Fiberp. 541
Wavelengths of Operationp. 543
Multimode Glass Fiber-Optic Cablingp. 544
Multimode Signal Propagationp. 546
Why Is Graded-Index Fiber Better than Step-Index?p. 551
Standards for Multimode Fiberp. 552
What Considerations Govern the Use of 50-micron Fiber?p. 554
Multimode Optical Performance Budgetp. 555
Jitterp. 568
Multimode Fiber-Optic Noise and Interferencep. 570
Multimode Fiber Safetyp. 571
Multimode Fiber with Laser Sourcep. 571
VCSEL Diodesp. 573
Multimode Fiber-Optic Connectorsp. 575
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cablingp. 576
Single-Mode Signal Propagationp. 577
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Noise and Interferencep. 578
Single-Mode Fiber Safetyp. 578
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Connectorsp. 578
Clock Distributionp. 579
Extra Fries, Pleasep. 582
Arithmetic of Clock Skewp. 584
Clock Repeatersp. 589
Active Skew Correctionp. 593
Zero-Delay Clock Repeatersp. 594
Compensating for Line Lengthp. 595
Stripline vs. Microstrip Delayp. 596
Importance of Terminating Clock Linesp. 599
Effect of Clock Receiver Thresholdsp. 601
Effect of Split Terminationp. 602
Intentional Delay Adjustmentsp. 605
Fixed Delayp. 605
Adjustable Delaysp. 607
Automatically Programmable Delaysp. 609
Serpentine Delaysp. 610
Switchback Couplingp. 612
Driving Multiple Loads with Source Terminationp. 616
To Tee or Not To Teep. 619
Driving Two Loadsp. 625
Daisy-Chain Clock Distributionp. 627
Case Study of Daisy-Chained Clockp. 629
The Jittersp. 634
When Clock Jitter Mattersp. 636
Measuring Clock Jitterp. 648
Power Supply Filtering for Clock Sources, Repeaters, and PLL Circuitsp. 656
Healthy Powerp. 659
Clean Powerp. 661
Intentional Clock Modulationp. 663
Signal Integrity Mailbagp. 665
Jitter-Free Clocksp. 667
Reduced-Voltage Signalingp. 668
Controlling Crosstalk on Clock Linesp. 669
Reducing Emissionsp. 670
Time-Domain Simulation Tools and Methodsp. 673
Ringing in a New Erap. 673
Signal Integrity Simulation Processp. 674
How Much Modeling Do You Need?p. 676
What Happens After Parameter Extraction?p. 676
A Word of Cautionp. 677
The Underlying Simulation Enginep. 678
Evolving Forwardp. 680
Pitfalls of SPICE-Like Algorithmsp. 680
Transmission Linesp. 682
Interpreting Your Resultsp. 684
Using SPICE Intelligentlyp. 685
IBIS (I/O Buffer Information Specification)p. 685
What Is IBIS?p. 686
Who Created IBIS?p. 686
What Is Good About IBIS?p. 687
What's Wrong with IBIS?p. 687
What You Can Do to Helpp. 688
IBIS: History and Future Directionp. 689
IBIS Historical Overviewp. 689
Comparison to SPICEp. 690
Future Directionsp. 690
IBIS: Issues with Interpolationp. 691
IBIS: Issues with SSO Noisep. 695
Nature of EMC Workp. 697
EMC Simulationp. 698
Power and Ground Resonancep. 699
Collected Referencesp. 703
Points to Rememberp. 710
Building a Signal Integrity Departmentp. 731
Calculation of Loss Slopep. 733
Two-Port Analysisp. 735
Simple Cases Involving Transmission Linesp. 737
Fully Configured Transmission Linep. 739
Complicated Configurationsp. 741
Accuracy of Pi Modelp. 743
Pi-Model Operated in the LC Regionp. 745
erf()p. 747
Indexp. 749
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780130844088
ISBN-10: 013084408X
Series: Prentice Hall Modern Semiconductor Design
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 808
Published: 6th March 2003
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.36 x 18.01  x 4.57
Weight (kg): 1.38
Edition Number: 1