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Jihad : From Qu'ran to Bin Laden - Richard Bonney


From Qu'ran to Bin Laden


Published: 30th October 2006
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This book locates the origin of Jihad and traces its evolution as an idea with the intellectual history of the concept of Jihad in Islam as well as how it has been misapplied by modern Islamic terrorists and suicide bombers. The book provides a unique and balanced coverage of the historical evolution of the concept of Jihad, and mainstream moderate Islamic views of the concept from the Qu'ran to the twenty-first century.

About the Author

Richard Bonney was the Founding Editor of the Oxford Journal, French History, between 1987-2001. He has instigated and directed the European State Finance Database. He is currently Head of Department of History at the University of Leicester and Director of the Centre for the History of Religious and Political Pluralism and of INPAREL, the Institute for the Study of Indo-Pakistan Relations.

'This remarkably comprehensive presentation combines depth of historical detail with breadth of interpretive vision. It provides an in-depth alternative to alarmist and simplistic discussions that concentrate on current headlines. Bonney presents a fair and balanced picture of the full range of Muslim thought from medieval mystics to contemporary activists and militants.' - John Voll, Director of the Centre for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, USA

'Mandatory reading...This new reappraisal of the evolution of the concept of Jihad in Islamic history...is particularly timely and welcome.' - from the Foreword by Zaki M. Badawi, Muslim College London, UK

'[A] sound, comprehensive and enlightening book on this greatly debated topic. It can be appreciated by [all] readers, given its objectivity, integrity and impartiality.' - Hassan Hanafi, Professor of Philosophy, Cairo University, Egypt

'Richard Bonney, in this timely and important work, studies the evolution of the concept of jihad, or struggle in the way of the Lord, in Muslim history...Bonney makes a major step forward in bringing much real learning to our understanding of jihad, which is too often distorted by sheer ignorance. This book should give journalists and politicians pause for thought, as well as the public in general. - Francis Robinson, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

'A comprehensive treatment of the subject both from the perspective of the development of the idea of Jihad in Muslim and general global thinking, but also a good critical introduction to the history of the doctrine in Muslim theology and jurisprudence. A fair and judicious treatment of the subject which will be welcomed by all readers.' - Muhammad Khalid Masud, formerly Academic Director, ISIM (International Institute for Islam in the Modern World), The Netherlands

'Richard Bonney's work on Jihad presents the most comprehensive analysis of the topic ever written, covering the time period from the revelation of the Quran up through contemporary events. Bonney effectively demonstrates that there is no single interpretation of jihad, but that interpretations have varied according to historical circumstance, geographical location, and political need. Exhaustively researched and highly detailed, it adds an important historical dimension to the ongoing debates about contemporary interpretations and distortions of jihad as holy war.' - Dr Natana DeLong-Bas, author of Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad and Notable Muslims: A Biographical Dictionary

'Such books would help our efforts aimed at clearing away misunderstanding about Islam especially the Jihad by the Western world.' - Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq, Minister for Religious Affairs, Pakistan

'Bonney's volume is a good piece of academic work...can be recommended as an informative read.' - Naima Mouhleb, Journal of Peace Research

Forewordp. x
Author's Prefacep. xii
Glossaryp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Prologue: The War of Annihilation (Herem) in the Hebrew Scripturesp. 15
Text and Meaning
Jihad in the Qur'an and the Sunnahp. 21
The Qur'anp. 21
The Gradual Transmission of the Text to the Prophetp. 22
A Holistic Interpretation of the Text or the Replacement of Some Texts by Others ('Abrogation')p. 24
Revelation by Substitution? The Four Stages in the Development of the Qur'anic Concept of Jihadp. 25
Different Senses of Jihad in the Qur'anp. 27
Differing Views among Modern Commentators on the Qur'anp. 29
No Perpetual War between the World of Islam and the World of Unbelief (Kufr) in the Qur'anp. 32
The Sunnahp. 33
Jihad in the Early Collections of the Hadithp. 34
The Early Usage of 'Martyrdom' in the Traditions of the Prophetp. 36
The Issue of Canonicity among the Collections of Hadith Literaturep. 37
'Weak' and 'False' Hadith and the Implications for the Jihad Traditionsp. 38
The Importance of Historical Context in Understanding the Prophetic Traditionsp. 42
The Prophet: a Spiritual but not a Political Leader?p. 43
'Jihad of the Sword': Carrying the Message Abroad (Futuhat)p. 53
The First Jihads against Unrighteousness: the Khariji Revolts as Exemplars of the Rejectionist Communityp. 55
The Succession Issue and the Choice of the Right Imamp. 58
Carrying the Message Abroad (Futuhat) and Proto-Jihadp. 62
The Muslim Armies and their Conductp. 68
Differences on Jihad between the Classical Juristsp. 71
The Developed Ideology of Jihadp. 74
The Acceptance of Juristic Disagreement: Ibn Rushdp. 79
Other Religionists as Second-Class Citizens: Dhimmitude and the Payment of Jizyap. 83
Selective Memory rather than Historical Reality: Crusades and Saladin's 'Counter-Crusade'p. 86
Jihad al-Nafs: The Spiritual Strugglep. 91
The Nature of Early Sufismp. 92
Al-Qushayri's Treatise and the Genre of the Sufi Textbookp. 94
The Pre-eminent al-Ghazalip. 97
The Location of Sufi Spiritual Activity: the 'Dervish Lodge' (Khanqah) and the Fortified Monastery (Ribat)p. 99
The Transmutation of One Branch of Sufism: Shah Wali Allah and the Caliphatep. 100
Contextual Theorists and State Systems
Ibn Taymiyah and the Defensive Jihad: a Response to the Crusades and the Mongol Invasionsp. 111
The Credentials of the Shaykh al-Islamp. 111
Ibn Taymiyah's Concept of the True Believerp. 113
Reviving the Duty of 'Jihad of the Sword'p. 116
Forbidding Wrong: the Guiding Book and the Helping Swordp. 118
The Contemporary Violent Islamists' Distortion of Ibn Taymiyah's 'Thoughtp. 121
Jihad as State System: the Ottoman State, Safavid Persia and the Mughal Empirep. 127
Jihad as a Factor in the Rise of the Ottoman Statep. 128
The Greatest Sunni Ruler? Suleyman the Law-Giver (al-Qanuni)p. 132
Problems of Factionalism and the Disintegration of Military Power under the Later Ottomansp. 136
Mughal Exceptionalismp. 139
Reviving the State and Faith under the Later Ottomansp. 145
From World War I Jihad to Genocide: the Young Turks and the Armenian Genocidep. 150
Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and Wahhabismp. 154
Ibn ' Abd al-Wahhab's Teaching and the Practice of Jihad in his Lifetimep. 155
Wahhabi Jihad after Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's Death: Three Sa'idi Regimesp. 163
'Petrodollar Puritanism' and the Issue of Tolerance of Diversity in Islamp. 168
Jihad in the Period of the Colonial Powers: Islamic Revivalism and Politicization of the Masses?p. 172
Jihad Movements in Pre-Colonial Africap. 173
The Five Fulani Jihads of West Africap. 175
The Prototype of the Anti-Colonial Jihad: the Jihad of 'Abd al-Qadir in Algeriap. 182
The Jihad of the Mahdi in the Sudanp. 183
The Jihad of Imam Shamil in Russiap. 186
The Jihad of Amir Ya'qub Beg in Chinese Central Asiap. 189
Jihad in the Era of the Indian Mutinyp. 192
The Development of Modernist Arguments in Opposition to Muslim Revivalismp. 194
Ideological Interpretations
Sunni Political Jihadists of the Twentieth-Century: Mawdudi, Hasan al-Banna', Qutbp. 199
Mawdudip. 200
Islamic Jihad as World Revolutionp. 200
The Seizure of Power by the Party of God (Hizbu'llah)p. 203
The Lordship of God? The Search for the Islamic Statep. 205
Islam Refuses Minority Statusp. 208
Hasan al-Banna'p. 211
The Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan)p. 211
Jihad: the Road to Salvation from Western Colonialismp. 212
Sayyid Qutbp. 215
Jihad as the Perpetual Revolutionary Struggle against the Forces of Unbelief, Injustice and Falsehood (Jahiliyyah)p. 216
The Supremacy of the 'Final Texts' over the 'Transitional Texts'p. 217
The Need for an Islamic Vanguard and its Influence on bin Ladenp. 221
The Shi'a Depiction of Jihad and Martyrdom (Shahadah)p. 224
Foundational Narratives of Martyrdomp. 225
The Imamiyyah World Viewp. 226
The Isma'ili Caliphate and its Rivals, 297/909-567/1171p. 228
The First Era of Sustained Group Terrorism? The Nizari Isma'ilis, Assassination and the Doctrine of the Last Day (Qiyamah), 559/1164-654/1256p. 231
The Shi'a as a Politico-Religious Minority in Ottoman-controlled 'Iraqp. 232
The 'Great 'Iraqi Revolution' or Jihad of 1338/1920 and its Implications in Iranp. 234
Architects of the Iranian Revolution: I. Mutahhari and Jihadp. 238
Architects of the Iranian Revolution: II. Khomeini's 'Greater Jihad' of the 30 Millionp. 243
The Resurgence of the Shi'a of 'Iraq. I: the Intifadah of 141 / March 1991p. 252
The Resurgence of the Shi'a of 'Iraq. II: the Jihad of 1425/2004p. 255
Context and Distortion of the Text
The Crucible: the Palestine-Israel Dispute and its Consequencesp. 269
The Palestinian Jihad of 1355/1936-1358/1939 against British Mandate Policyp. 271
From Disaster (al-Nakbah) and Dispersal to the First Military Operations, 1367/1948-1374/1955p. 276
Disunity and Defeat of the 'State within the State': the Palestinian Movement from the Suez-Sinai War of 1376/1956 to the October War of 1393/1973p. 280
The Assassination of Sadat: Faraj and the 'Neglected Duty' of Jihadp. 288
Operation 'Peace for Galilee': Hizbu'llah's Legitimation of 'Martyrdom Operations' in Lebanonp. 292
The First Palestinian Intifadah: Palestinian Peace-making Trends and the Emergence of Hamasp. 304
The Second Palestinian Intifadah: the Affirmation of Jihadi Ideologyp. 312
Osama bin Laden: Global Jihad as 'Fifth-Generation' Warfarep. 320
Jihad Perceived as 'Fourth-Generation' Warfare, 2002p. 321
Sowing the Wind: the 'Fabrication' of the Afghan Jihadp. 324
Reaping the Whirlwind: Post-Soviet Afghanistan, Kashmir, Central Asia, Chechnya, Xinjiang and Algeriap. 335
Afghanistanp. 335
Kashmirp. 343
Central Asiap. 347
Chechnyap. 349
Xinjiangp. 352
Algeriap. 353
The Struggle against 'Crusaderism' and the Sa'udi Regime: Osama bin Laden and his Ideological Supportersp. 356
A Clash of 'Rival Exceptionalisms', Not a Clash of Civilizations. I: Aspects of Militant Islamist Exceptionalismp. 365
A Clash of 'Rival Exceptionalisms', Not a Clash of Civilizations. II: Aspects of American Exceptionalismp. 369
The Revenge of al-Qaeda: Global Jihad Perceived as 'Fifth-Generation' Warfarep. 375
Conclusion: 'Enlightened Moderation': Towards a Muslim Consensus on the Future Development of Islam and its Relations with the Westp. 395
To Understand Each Jihad We Must Understand its Historical Contextp. 399
There is No Legitimate Offensive Jihad: Nor Should Islam be Regarded as a 'Religion of the Sword'p. 400
Jihad as the Right of Defence of the Community: the 'Just War' Argument in New Historical Circumstancesp. 402
The Unity of Islam and Tolerance Within Islamp. 404
The Need for Mainstream Islam to Embrace Positively the Existence of Pluralist Societies in the Contemporary Worldp. 407
Mainstream Muslims Engage with the Key Issues as Perceived by Others: Ijtihad, Shari'ah Modernization, Common Citizenship, Power-Sharing in Civil Society, Apostasyp. 410
The Jihad for Justice and the Betterment of the Human Conditionp. 418
The Future of the Human Family. I: Six Principles for Considerationp. 420
The Future of the Human Family. II: Islam's Need to Engage in 'Public Diplomacy'p. 422
Extract from a Legal Ruling (Fatwa)p. 424
Notesp. 426
Select Bibliographyp. 553
Indexp. 573
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780230507029
ISBN-10: 0230507026
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 594
Published: 30th October 2006
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 21.13 x 14.2  x 3.2
Weight (kg): 0.74
Edition Number: 1
Edition Type: Annotated