Buridan was a brilliant logician in an age of brilliant logicians, sensitive to formal and philosophical considerations. There is a need for critical editions and accurate translations of his works, for his philosophical voice speaks directly across the ages to problems of concern to analytic philosophers today. But his idiom is unfamiliar, so editions and trans- lations alone will not bridge the gap of centuries. I have tried to make Buridan accessible to philosophers and logicians today by the introduc- tory essay, in which I survey Buridan's philosophy of logic. Several problems which Buridan touches on only marginally in the works trans- lated herein are developed and discussed, citing other works of Buridan; some topics which he treats at length in the translated works, such as the semantic theory of oblique terms, I have touched on lightly or not at all. Such distortions are inevitable, and I hope that the idiosyncracies of my choice of philosophically relevant topics will not blind the reader to other topics of value Buridan considers. My goal in translating has been to produce an accurate renaering of the Latin.
Often Buridan will couch a logical rule in terms of the grammatical form of a sentence, and I have endeavored to keep the translation consistent. Some strained phrases result, such as "A man I know" having a different logic from "I know a man. " This awkwardness cannot always be avoided, and I beg the reader's indulgence. All of the translations here are my own.
Preface.- Buridan's Philosophy of Logic.- Section 1. John Buridan: Life and Times.- Section 2. The Treatises.- Section 3. Meaning and Mental Language.- 3.1. Levels of Language.- 3.2. Nominalist Semantics and Equiformity.- 3.3. Mental as an Ideal Language.- Section 4. The Properties of Terms.- 4.1. Syncategorematic Terms.- 4.2. Absolute and Appellative Terms.- 4.3. Intentional Verbs.- Section 5. Sentences.- 5.1. Sentences as Assertions.- 5.2. Categorical Sentences.- 5.3. Hypothetical Sentences.- 5.4. Principles of Sentential Logic.- 5.5. Truth and Sentential Signification.- Section 6. The Theory of Supposition.- 6.1. Supposition and the Theory of Reference.- 6.2. Personal and Material Supposition.- 6.3. Discrete and Common Supposition.- 6.4. Absolute and Relative Supposition.- 6.5. Natural and Accidental Supposition.- 6.6. Determinate and Confused Supposition.- 6.7. Distributive and Non-Distributive Supposition.- 6.8. Ampliation: Time and Modality.- 6.9. Truth-Conditions.- Section 7. Consequences.- 7.1. Conditionals, Inferences, and Consequences.- 7.2. The Definition and Division of Consequences.- 7.3. Assertoric Consequences.- 7.4. Divided Modal Consequences.- 7.5. Composite Modal Consequences.- Section 8. The Syllogism.- 8.1. Definition of the Syllogism.- 8.2. Syllogistic Semantic Principles.- 8.3. Reduction and Proof-Procedure.- 8.4. Assertoric Syllogistic.- 8.5. Composite Modal Syllogistic.- 8.6. Divided Modal Syllogistic.- Translation. The Treatise on Supposition.- 1. Signification, Supposition, Verification, Appellation.- 1.1. The Aim of Chapter 1.- 1.2. Signification and Supposition.- 1.3. Supposition and Verification.- 1.4. Supposition and Appellation.- 2. Kinds of Significative Words.- 2.1. Complex and Incomplex.- 2.2. Subject and Predicate.- 2.3. Categorematic and Syncategorematic Terms.- 2.4. Complex and Incomplex Concepts.- 2.5. Perfect and Imperfect Expressions.- 2.6. Rules for Supposition.- 3. The Kinds of Supposition.- 3.1. Proper and Improper Supposition.- 3.2. Material and Personal Supposition.- 3.3. Common and Discrete Personal Supposition.- 3.4. Natural and Accidental Supposition.- 3.5. Confused and Determinate Supposition.- 3.6. Distributive and Merely Confused Supposition.- 3.7. Rules for Distributive Confusion.- 3.8. Rules for Non-Distributive Confusion.- 4. The Supposition of Relative Terms.- 4.1. The Meaning of 'Relative Term'.- 4.2. The Kinds of Relative Terms.- 4.3. Reference to the Antecedent.- 4.4. Supposition of the Antecedent.- 4.5. 'This' and 'That'.- 4.6. 'Himself'.- 4.7. 'His Own'.- 4.8. 'Such' and 'So Much'.- 4.9. Differentiating Relative-Terms.- 5. Appellation.- 5.1. Review.- 5.2. The Appellation of Subject and Predicate.- 5.3. Appellation and Signification.- 5.4. Appellation of Particular Terms.- 6. Ampliation and Restriction.- 6.1. The Status of a Term.- 6.2. Ampliation.- 6.3. Restriction.- 6.4. Alienation.- 6.5. The Alienation of Supposition.- 6.6. Cancelled Supposition.- Translation. The Treatise on Consequences.- Book I. Consequences in General and Among Assertoric Sentences.- 1.1. The Truth and Falsity of Sentences.- 1.2. The Causes of the Truth and Falsity of Sentences.- 1.3. The Definition of 'Consequence'.- 1.4. The Kinds of Consequences.- 1.5. The Supposition of Terms.- 1.6. The Ampliation of Terms.- 1.7. The Matter and Form of Sentences.- 1.8. Theorem About Assertoric Consequences.- Book II. Consequences Among Modal Sentences.- 2.1. Modal Sentences.- 2.2. Composite and Divided Modal Sentences.- 2.3. Affirmative and Negative Divided Modals.- 2.4. Ampliated Terms in Divided Modal Sentences.- 2.5. Equipollent Modal Sentences.- 2.6. Theorems About Divided Modals.- 2.7. Theorems About Composite Modals.- Book III. Syllogisms With Assertoric Sentences.- 3.1. The Kinds of Consequences.- 3.2. The Syllogism.- 3.3. Finite and Infinite Terms.- 3.4. Theorems.- 3.5. Sentences With Oblique Terms.- 3.6. Syllogistic Extremes and Middle.- 3.7. Theorems.- Book IV. Syllogisms with Modal Sentences.- 4.1. Syllogisms With Composite Modal Sentences.- 4.2. Syllogisms With Divided Modal Sentences.- 4.3. Divided Contingent Modals.- 4.4. Syllogisms With Reduplicative Sentences.- Notes.- Notes. Buridan's Philosophy of Logic.- Notes. Treatise on Supposition.- Notes. Treatise on Consequences.- Book I. Notes.- Book II. Notes.- Book III. Notes.- Book IV. Notes.- Indexes.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.- Index of Rules and Theorems.
Series: NEW SYNTHSES HISTORICAL LIBRARY
Number Of Pages: 380
Published: 30th November 1985
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51
Weight (kg): 0.74