The Working Group "0ffshore Nuclear Power Plants" was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1971. At that time it appeared that the option offered by creating new sites offshore should be explored. The present development of nuclear power has not, however, reached the stage where offs hore siting can be considered as a near or medium term proposition. The purpose of this report is to summarize the state of the art for the provision of floating or fixed structures, or man-made islands of the size needed for the construction of nuclear and other power stations. It describes the main factors which must be taken into account in the design and location of such islands and provides an indication of feasibility and cost for each design at the present time. It deals mainly with the civil engineering problems and not other major factors, such as the law of the sea, the rights of countries to locate nuclear establishments off their coast, their safety, security, the energy connection with the mainland, the marine ecology, the logistics, etc.; many of these problems are directly related to the site and have major economic and political implications.
By studying application examples the Working Group has occupied itself with these other factors.
1. Terms of Reference.- 2. Introduction.- 3. Literature Review.- 4. Design Criteria.- Siting categories.- Design life.- Hazard.- Design parameters.- Nuclear power station.- Access.- Construction & operation personnel.- Transmission links.- 5. Island Concepts.- Types of island.- Features of island types.- Comparison of island types.- Comparison of concrete & steel.- Conclusions.- 6. Outline Designs.- Floating island.- Semisubmersible.- Gravity platform.- Caisson island.- Fill island.- Caisson retained island.- Protected floating island.- Caisson/fill island.- Caisson/piled island.- Cooling water.- Access.- 7. Construction Methods and Times.- Floating island and semisubmersible.- Gravity platform.- Caisson island.- Fill island.- Caisson retained.- Protected floating island.- Caisson/fill and caisson/piled islands.- Power station development.- 8. Plant Construction Costs.- General.- Floating island.- Semisubmersible.- Fixed island.- Fill island.- Caisson & composite islands.- Summary.- 9. Unit Costs For Islands.- General.- Concrete in islands.- Sandfill.- Natural gravel.- Rockfill.- Filter.- Rock armour.- Concrete in armour units.- Sheet piled quays.- Summary.- 10. Cost Estimates.- General.- Costs of outline designs.- Auxiliary structures.- Access.- Transmission links.- Summary.- 11. Conclusions.- Design criteria.- Types of island.- Siting categories - island suitability.- Timescale.- Production/construction facilities.- Factors affecting overall costs.- Power station weight and layout Summary.- Summary.- 12. Recommendations.- Appendices.- A Technical Annex to Contract No 623-79-12 EC1 UK.- B Draft Information Note.- C Selected Bibliography.- D Water Depths within Study Area.- E Wave Heights within Study Area.- F Wave Forces.- G Tidal Ranges within Study Area.- H Extreme Water Levels.- J Dynamic Stability of Offshore Islands.- K Cooling Water Dispersion.