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Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey : Who is a Turk? - Soner Cagaptay

Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey

Who is a Turk?

Hardcover Published: 15th December 2005
ISBN: 9780415384582
Number Of Pages: 262

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It is commonly believed that during the interwar period, Kemalist secularism successfully eliminated religion from the public sphere in Turkey, leaving Turkish national identity devoid of religious content. However, through its examination of the impact of the Ottoman millet system on Turkish and Balkan nationalisms, this book presents a different view point. Cagaptay demonstrates that the legacy of the Ottomon millet system which divided the Ottoman population into religious compartments called millets, shaped Turkey's understanding of nationalism in the interwar period. Providing a compelling examination of why and how religion shapes national identity in Turkey and the Balkans the book covers topics including:


* Turkish nationalism
* the Ottoman legacy
* Kemalist citizenship policies and immigration
* Kurds, Muslims and Jews and the ethno-religious limits of Turkishness.

Incorporating documents from untapped Turkish archives, this book is essential reading for scholars and students with research interests in Turkey, Turkish nationalism and Middle East history.

'There is no question that Cagaptay - a highly intelligent, serious, soul-searching, and inquisitive scholar - has put his finger on several crucial issues in Turkish political and cultural life.' - Kemal H. Karpat, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 39 No. 2, May 2007

'...it stands apart from some of the previous works on the subject by its in-depth and judicious analysis based on a careful reading of the available archival evidence' - Sabri Sayari, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, Winter 2007

List of illustrationsp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Note on namesp. xv
Notes on personal names, translations, and archival sourcesp. xvii
Prologuep. xix
Introduction: Turkish nationalism todayp. 1
From the Muslim millet to the Turkish nation: the Ottoman legacyp. 4
From ethnicities to nationsp. 4
The fall of the Ottoman Empire: from the Ottoman Muslims to the Turkish nationp. 4
The rise of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) and the fight for Anatoliap. 7
Secularism, Kemalist nationalism, Turkishness, and the minorities in the 1920sp. 11
Anatolian Muslims rally to liberate Turkeyp. 11
Secularization: the ascent of nominal Islam as a marker of Turkishnessp. 13
A dilemma for Kemalism: Turkish citizenship vs Turkish nationalityp. 14
Kurds in the 1920s: the role of religion in assimilationp. 19
Jews during the 1920s: the role of the Turkish language in assimilationp. 24
Christians in the 1920s: an overviewp. 27
Greeks in the 1920sp. 29
Arab Christians, Jacobites, and other Eastern Christians during the 1920sp. 31
Armenians during the 1920s: conflict and confrontationp. 32
Conclusionp. 39
Kemalism par excellence in the 1930s: the rise of Turkish nationalismp. 41
Menemen rebellion, Agri uprising, and SCF experience: the troublesome 1930p. 41
The advent of High Kemalismp. 43
CHP's 1931 Congressp. 44
CHP's 1935 Congress and the six principles of Kemalismp. 46
The Inspectorates-Generalp. 47
First Turkish History Congress and the Turkish History Thesisp. 48
The rise of ethnic definition of the Turkish nationp. 52
The ramifications of the Turkish History Thesisp. 54
First Turkish Language Congress and the purification of the Turkish languagep. 54
Ataturk's death and the end of a period of High Kemalismp. 56
The ethno-racial definition of the Turkish nation vs Turkey's ethno-religious diversityp. 57
Citizen, speak Turkish and adopt a Turkish last name!p. 57
Conclusionp. 63
Who is a Turk? Kemalist citizenship policiesp. 65
Citizenship as a political tool in interwar Europe: an overviewp. 65
Turkish censuses under High Kemalismp. 66
The privileged position of the Turks among the Turkish citizensp. 69
Denaturalization casesp. 71
Naturalization casesp. 75
Race and ethnicity in Turkish citizenship policies in the 1930sp. 79
Conclusionp. 80
Defining the boundaries of Turkishness: Kemalist immigration and resettlement policiesp. 82
The nature of immigration to Turkey in the 1920s and the 1930sp. 82
The Resettlement Law of 1926p. 84
The resettlement policies toward the Kurds in the 1920sp. 86
The Resettlement Law of 1934p. 88
Race and ethnicity in Turkish resettlement policies in the 1930sp. 90
Armenians in the High Kemalist resettlement actsp. 92
The immigration matrixp. 92
Balkan and Caucasus Muslims in the High Kemalist resettlement policiesp. 94
Hierarchy in immigration to Turkeyp. 95
The spirit of High Kemalist immigration and resettlement policiesp. 100
Secularized Islam defines Turkishness: Kurds and other Muslims as Turksp. 102
Why were the Kurds the biggest challenge to Kemalism?p. 102
The Kadro movement and the Kurds: "Are the Kurds a nation?"p. 102
Kemalism and the Kurds: 1920s into the 1930sp. 105
The Dersim uprisingp. 107
High Kemalist policy toward the Circassians and other Caucasus Muslimsp. 113
High Kemalist policy toward the Nusayris, and the Hatay Conundrump. 116
The Sancak controversy of the late 1930sp. 117
High Kemalist policies toward the Arabs and the Albaniansp. 121
Conclusionp. 122
Ethno-religious limits of Turkishness: Christians excluded from the nationp. 124
A general overviewp. 124
Greeks under High Kemalismp. 126
Eastern Christians under High Kemalismp. 129
Armenians under High Kemalismp. 130
Armenian assassination attempts against the leaders of the Republicp. 132
Caution and ethnic bias toward the Armeniansp. 133
Turkish Armenians at the end of the High Kemalist erap. 136
Conclusion: a legacy of uneasiness toward Christianity and the Christiansp. 137
Jews in the 1930s: Turks or not?p. 140
Thrace, the focal point of Jewish concentration in Turkeyp. 140
Ankara's attitude toward the Thracian Jews and Bulgarian revisionism concerning Thracep. 140
Jewish exodus from Thrace, the 1934 Thracian incidentsp. 142
The aftermath of the 1934 incidentsp. 148
Anti-semitism in Turkey in the 1930sp. 148
Jewish immigration to Turkey in the 1930sp. 151
The death of Ataturk and the arrest of Italian Jewsp. 153
Conclusion: Jews in the 1930s, Turkish nationalism vs anti-semitismp. 155
Conclusion: understanding Turkish nationalism in modern Turkey-the Kemalist legacyp. 156
The characteristics of Turkish nationalism in the interwar periodp. 156
Kemalism's three zones of Turkishnessp. 159
The saliency of ethno-religious nationalism in the former Ottoman spherep. 161
Understanding Turkey's nationality-related dilemmas: the Kemalist legacyp. 161
Notesp. 163
Bibliographyp. 223
Indexp. 245
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415384582
ISBN-10: 0415384583
Series: Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 262
Published: 15th December 2005
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.15  x 2.06
Weight (kg): 0.56
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Annotated