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Islam : Historical, Social, and Political Perspectives - Jacques Waardenburg


Historical, Social, and Political Perspectives

Hardcover Published: 20th June 2002
ISBN: 9783110171785
Number Of Pages: 452
For Ages: 22+ years old

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This book presents some twenty essays on different aspects of Islam in history and the present. These essays are grouped into eight larger sections. The first, "The Beginnings", deals with the transition from pre-Islamic understandings and reason, an essential part of the Quranic message. The next two sections deal with Islam specifically as a religion with its particular signs and symbols. The question of rules of interpretation in Islam and its structural features is discussed here. Sections four and five deal with ethics in Islam, including Muslim identity and human rights, and certain social functions of Islam. Section six introduces some 19th and 20th century reform movements, with special attention given to developments in Saudi Arabia and the "puritan" characteristics of present-day Islamic revival movements. The final two sections discuss contemporary issues: Islamization processes and policies, Islamic ideologies, the ideologization of Islam, and the political uses of religion. Throughout the book the author shows the links between the religious and other interpretations and uses made of Islam and the contexts in which they are made. The Introduction signals some important developments in Islamic studies since World War II.

"Professor Waardenburg has presented twenty thougth-provoking studies in depth, together making a learned and rich source of information, for which many friends, colleagues and others will be grateful to him."Jan Slomp in: Bibliotheca Orientalis 5-6/2007

Introduction and a Form of Acknowledgmentsp. 1
1950-2000: Memories in Contextp. 1
1950-2000: The International Scenep. 8
1950-2000: Islamic Studiesp. 10
The Beginningsp. 10
Islam as a Religionp. 12
Structures and Interpretations of Islamp. 13
Muslim Presentations of Islam and of Human Rightsp. 14
Social Reality and Islamp. 15
The Case of Arabiap. 16
Islamic Reform and Modernizationp. 16
Islamic Ideologyp. 17
The Political Scene and Islamp. 18
The Beginnings
Changes in Belief and the Rise of Islamp. 23
Spiritual Beings before Islamp. 24
The Bedouinp. 24
Oases and Townsp. 25
A Sidelight from Palmyrap. 30
A New Ordering of the Spiritual Beings in the Qur'anp. 34
Allahp. 34
The Jinnp. 36
The Deitiesp. 37
The Angelsp. 38
The Demons and Iblisp. 38
Spiritual Beings and the Doctrine of Revelationp. 40
Faith and Reason in the Argumentation of the Qur'anp. 45
The Qur'anic Concept of Reasonp. 46
A Person's Intellectual Capacities in Connection with Faithp. 46
The Use a Person Makes of his or her Intellectual Capacities in Connection with Faithp. 47
Forms of Argumentation in the Qur'anp. 49
First, we can distinguish a kind of "logic of life" itself, which reveals truths inherent in life as suchp. 49
In the second place, there is a kind of "logic of revelation", whereby it is assumed, again implicitly, that there is something like "revelation"p. 50
Third, there is a kind of "logic of faith" that is developed as soon as the existence of faith is assumed, established, and defended against internal doubtsp. 50
With regard to the People of the Scripturesp. 51
With regard to the other unbelieversp. 52
Faith in Allah as Godp. 53
Connections Between the Qur'anic Concept of Reason and Specific Forms of Reasoning in Qur'anic Argumentationp. 55
The Study of Reason in Islam and in Other Religionsp. 57
Islam as a Religion
Islamic Attitudes to Signsp. 61
The Fundamental Signs: Revelationp. 62
Signs Recognized Within Normative Islamp. 63
Primary Signsp. 63
Secondary Signsp. 64
Signs and Symbols in Practiced, Living Islam (Popular Islam)p. 66
The Symbolic Use of Islamic Elements and of Islam Itselfp. 68
Signification and Symbolization in Islamp. 70
Islam Studied in the Perspective of Science of Religionp. 73
A Perspective of the Science of Religionp. 73
Islam as the Interpretation and Application of "Signs"p. 75
Islam in the Perspective of Science of Religionp. 77
The Application of this Approach in Islamic Studiesp. 78
Structures and Interpretations of Islam
Official, Popular, and Normative Religion in Islamp. 85
A Medieval Muslim Viewp. 85
Popular Religion in Islamp. 87
Popular Formsp. 87
Popular Movementsp. 88
Some Characteristics of Popular Islamp. 90
Popular Islam Within the Framework of Practiced Islamp. 91
Official Religion and its Representatives in Islamp. 94
The Concept of Normative Islamp. 97
Conclusionp. 99
Appendix: A Note on the Contexts of Earlier Research on Official and Popular Islamp. 102
Are there Hermeneutic Principles in Islam?p. 111
Introductionp. 111
Classical Tafsirp. 113
Some Features of Islamic Tafsirp. 114
Scholarly and Practical Tafsirp. 116
The Qur'an as Scripturep. 117
Tafsir and Ta'wil: Sufi and Shi'ip. 118
Twentieth-century Developments in Qur'an Interpretationp. 121
Present-day Qur'an Interpretationp. 124
Western and Muslim studiesp. 124
Qur'anic Universes: Rationality and Presuppositionsp. 126
The Relevance of Hermeneutics in Islamp. 127
Toward a New Scholarly View of Qur'an and Islamp. 128
Conclusionp. 130
Muslim Presentations of Islam and of Human Rights
Some North African Intellectuals' Presentations of Islamp. 137
Some Common Featuresp. 139
The Straightforward Presentation of Islam: Malek Bennabip. 140
Description of Arab-Islamic and European Civilization Side by Side: Hichem Djaitp. 141
Reaching for Dialogue: Ali Merad and Mohamed Talbip. 143
Comparative Historical Analysis: Abdallah Larouip. 145
The Effort to Think about Commonly Recognized Problems: Mohammed Arkounp. 147
Significance for Islamic Studies and Other Religious Studiesp. 151
Applied Islamologyp. 156
Conclusionp. 158
Human Rights, Human Dignity, and Islamp. 160
Introductionp. 160
Historyp. 161
Some Characteristics of the Declarations of Human Rightsp. 163
Some Religious Reactionsp. 164
Some Characteristics of the Religious Reactionsp. 166
Islam: A Special Case?p. 167
Saudi Arabiap. 167
Kuwaitp. 169
"Organization of Islamic Conference"p. 170
Islamic Council of Europep. 171
Some Features of this Islamic Approachp. 173
The Islamic and the Universal Declaration Comparedp. 175
General Itemsp. 175
Specific Itemsp. 176
Sad Human Realitiesp. 179
Conclusionp. 181
Social Reality and Islam
Islamic Religious Tradition and Social Developmentp. 189
Preliminary Remarksp. 189
Religious Traditionp. 191
Traditions in Third World Societiesp. 192
Tradition in Islam and in Muslim Societiesp. 193
Two Kinds of Traditionp. 193
Internal Mechanisms of Change within Traditionp. 194
Attitudes Taken Toward Traditionp. 195
Religious Tradition in Muslim Countriesp. 197
Examples from the Middle Eastp. 198
Modernization of Lawp. 199
Modernization and Islam in the Middle Eastp. 201
Development of Religious Thoughtp. 203
Concluding Remarks on Middle Eastern Developments and Islamp. 204
Conclusionp. 205
Islam's Function as a Civil Religionp. 210
Islamp. 211
The Statep. 212
Civil Religionp. 214
Civil Religion in Islamic Historyp. 218
The Medieval Period and the Period of the Muslim Empiresp. 218
The Period of Orientations toward the West (first Europe, later also the USA)p. 220
The Period of Reorientations towards Islamp. 222
Islam's Function as a Civil Religionp. 225
The Case of Arabia
The Wahhabis in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Arabiap. 229
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhabp. 229
Doctrinesp. 232
The Doctrine of Tawhidp. 232
Theologyp. 233
Communityp. 234
Leadershipp. 235
Jihadp. 235
Religious Devotionp. 237
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Historyp. 238
First Expansionp. 238
The Hejazp. 239
Ottoman Reactionp. 240
Infrastructural Foundations of the Wahhabi Statep. 241
Consolidation of the Statep. 242
Survival of the Al Sa'udp. 243
Saudi Arabia: The King and the Consulp. 246
Some Historical Factsp. 246
Daniel van der Meulen on Islam and the Rise of Saudi Arabiap. 254
Daniel van der Meulen and King 'Abd al-'Azizp. 260
Conclusionp. 266
Islamic Reform and Intellectual Reflection
Tsarist Russia and the Dutch East Indiesp. 273
The Scenep. 275
The Colonial Presencep. 275
Muslim Responsesp. 277
Russia and Indonesia: Differencesp. 278
Russia and Indonesia: Common Featuresp. 280
The Study of Movements of Modernization and Reformp. 282
Muslim Awakening and Revitalizationp. 284
Puritan Patterns in Islamic Revival Movementsp. 287
Introductionp. 287
Islamic Revival Movements and Revitalization of Islamp. 287
Common Features of Islamic Revival Movementsp. 290
The Puritan Patternp. 292
Ideological und Practical Aspectsp. 292
The Puritan Pattern as Ideal Typep. 293
The Interest of the Puritan Pattern for Islamic Studiesp. 294
The Islamic State and the Puritan Patternp. 296
Islamic Ideology
The Call (Da'wa) of Islamic Movementsp. 303
The Concept of Da'wap. 304
Da'wa Movements in Historyp. 306
Da'wa Movements in Recent Historyp. 307
The Increase in Da'wa Movementsp. 310
New Social Meanings of Islamp. 311
Islamic Movements Studied as Da'wa Movementsp. 314
Ideologization in Present-Day Islam: An Explorationp. 317
Introductionp. 317
Ideologizing a Religionp. 318
The Case of Islamp. 320
The Internal Context of Islamic Ideologiesp. 322
External Contexts: Relations with the Westp. 324
Ideologies Leading to Actionp. 325
The International Spread of Islamic Ideologiesp. 329
Some Special Features of Islamic Ideologiesp. 330
Further Study of Islamic Ideologies and Ideologizationp. 332
The International Scene and Islam
The Rise of Islamic Statesp. 337
The Ideal of an Islamic Orderp. 337
Historical Perspectivep. 338
Contextual Perspectivep. 339
Muslim Perspectives on the Role of Religion in Societyp. 341
Some General Considerationsp. 341
Some Thinkers and Groupsp. 343
The Salafiyap. 344
The Muslim Brothersp. 345
Four Islamic States Comparedp. 348
The Four Statesp. 348
Themes of Comparisonp. 351
The Religious Dimensionp. 355
Islamic States and Contemporary Historyp. 358
Conclusionp. 359
Islam as a Vehicle of Protestp. 364
Levels of Protestp. 366
Three Kinds of Religious Movements with a "Protest" Characterp. 368
Self-Defense Against Outside Domination and Interferencep. 368
Religious Protest against Decline: The Reform Movementsp. 371
Indirect Forms of Protest within Islam: Law and the Mystical Pathp. 375
Muslim Religious Modernismp. 376
Is Religious Protest a Structural Feature of Islam?p. 377
Protest and Islam in the Arab Countries in Particularp. 378
The Use of Islam as a Symbol of Protestp. 380
Conclusionp. 383
Islam in Present-Day Muslim Statesp. 387
Religious and Political Authoritiesp. 387
Religious Authoritiesp. 387
Political Authoritiesp. 390
Private and State Initiatives in the Use of Islamp. 392
Private Initiativesp. 393
State Initiativesp. 394
Tensions Between Private and State Initiatives in the Use of Islamp. 396
Articulations of Islam as a Civil Religionp. 397
The Nation-Statep. 398
Islam as a Limit to the Statep. 399
Civil Society and Civil Religionp. 400
Further Readingsp. 405
Index of Arabic and Persian Termsp. 419
Index of Personsp. 422
Geographical Namesp. 425
Index of Subjectsp. 427
Index of Conceptsp. 432
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783110171785
ISBN-10: 3110171783
Series: Religion and Reason
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 452
Published: 20th June 2002
Publisher: De Gruyter
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.0 x 15.5  x 2.87
Weight (kg): 0.82