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Islam : Past, Present and Future - Hans Kung


Past, Present and Future

By: Hans Kung

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For more than two decades the world religions have been a central topic for Hans Küng. In books which have inspired millions throughout human society, he has pioneered work towards a new dialogue between cultures. In this extraordinarily comprehensive book, he gives an in-depth account of Islam, the second largest world religion after Christianity. Describing paradigm shifts in its 1400-year history, outlining the various currents and surveying the positions of Islam on the urgent questions of the day, few present-day theologians could have written such a complete analysis. As in Küng’s earlier studies on Judaism (1991) and Christianity (1994), he focuses on the central principles in the faith and seeks to show the parallels between the monotheistic world religions. With detailed analysis of the contents and meaning of the Koran, he challenges the notion that people of different religions are intrinsically opposed. Indeed, in the introduction of this thought-provoking and powerful book, he explicitly presents its message as being the antithesis of that of the influential Clash of Civilisations (1993), by Samuel Huntington. Instead of presenting Islam as the new ‘enemy’ in a post Cold War world, and regarding the current international situation as a call for further rearmament and hatred, he suggests that a "peace between religions" is a prerequisite for "peace between nations". Informative, opinionated and exceedingly well-constructed, this is a masterpiece by the foremost scholar in his field. In a world where understanding of global politics requires a knowledge of Islam, there is no better place to start. Dr. Küng is President of the Foundation for a Global Ethic (Weltethos). From 1960 until his retirement in 1996, he was Professor of Ecumenical Theology and Director of the Institute for Ecumenical Research at the University of Tübingen. He is a scholar of theology and philosophy and a prolific writer. He was recently named among Foreign Affairs One Hundred Public Intellectuals

Lord George Carey - former Archbishop of Canterbury, 1991-2002"A magnificent 'tour de force' by our greatest living theologian"

The Aim of this Bookp. xxiii
Against the clash of civilizationsp. xxiii
Making people capable of dialoguep. xxvi
A long intellectual journeyp. xxix
A Controversial Religionp. 3
The hostile image of Islamp. 3
The usefulness of a hostile imagep. 3
Intolerance, militancy, backwardness?p. 5
Is dialogue impossible?p. 6
Eastern knowledge, Western ignorancep. 7
From polemical caricature to balanced reassessmentp. 10
Enlightenment through literaturep. 11
Oriental studies and orientalismp. 12
The idealized image of Islamp. 14
An invitation to conversionp. 15
The fascination of Islamp. 16
May we be critical?p. 17
Neither prohibitions of questions nor lame comparisonsp. 18
The real image of Islamp. 19
The 'essence' of Islam in changing formsp. 19
The 'essence' of Islam and its perversionp. 20
The status quo as a criterion?p. 22
Understanding Islam from the insidep. 23
Problems of the Beginningp. 25
Five thousand years of Near Eastern high religionsp. 25
Arabia on the periphery of the great empiresp. 26
The breakthrough of prophetic monotheism-Israel and Iranp. 30
Jews, Christians and Jewish Christians in Arabiap. 32
The Jews in the competition over Arabiap. 32
Six centuries of Arab Christianityp. 33
Arabic-also a language of Christiansp. 35
No roots in Hellenistic Christianityp. 36
Traces of Jewish Christianityp. 37
Vilification of Jewish Christiansp. 39
Jewish Christianity on the Arabian peninsula?p. 40
Abraham-the common ancestor of the 'people of the book'p. 45
Who was Abraham?p. 45
Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael: biblical perspectivesp. 46
Dispute over the Abrahamic heritage: Qur'anic perspectivesp. 49
What binds Jews, Christians and Muslims togetherp. 51
Is Islam a way of salvation?p. 54
God's Word has Become a Bookp. 59
The Qur'an-the specific feature of Islamp. 59
A definition of essence that goes beyond essencep. 61
The Qur'an-an Arabic, living, holy bookp. 62
The Qur'an-God's wordp. 65
The Qur'an-a book fallen from heaven?p. 67
There is a process of canonization in all 'books of religion'p. 67
A wearisome process of collecting and editingp. 68
Periods of revelationp. 71
The Qur'an as the Islamic constantp. 73
Is the Qur'an also the Word of God for Christians?p. 74
The Central Messagep. 77
There is no God but Godp. 77
The practical theocentricity of Islamp. 78
Monotheism as a core concern and fighting programmep. 79
The creation of the world and human beingsp. 81
God's supremacy-and human responsibility?p. 83
The last judgement and the final destiny of human beingsp. 84
A concrete paradise and hellp. 85
The most beautiful names of Godp. 86
The common belief in God in the three Abrahamic religionsp. 87
Muhammad is his Prophetp. 91
The common basic ethic of the three prophetic religionsp. 91
A prophetic religion par excellencep. 92
How the Prophet was called: the messenger of Godp. 95
The battle for justice: the threat to the status quop. 98
The battle for the oneness of God: 'Satanic verses'p. 100
Emigration: the turn of the agesp. 103
The Prophet as leading figurep. 105
How the Prophet became the statesman: the founding of a communityp. 105
The break with the Jewsp. 107
The Islamic theology of historyp. 109
How the Prophet became the general: purges and warsp. 110
Muhammad's legacyp. 113
Achievements and virtues of the Prophetp. 116
Immoral? The traditional chargesp. 118
Like the prophets of Israelp. 122
Is Muhammad also a prophet for Christians?p. 123
The Central Structural Elementsp. 125
Mandatory prayerp. 126
Daily ritual prayer-the essential symbol of Islamp. 126
Characteristics of Islamic prayer and worship: no priesthoodp. 127
Physical manifestations: mosque-muezzin-minaretp. 129
Almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimagep. 132
Annual almsgiving for the poorp. 132
The annual period of fastingp. 134
The great pilgrimage to Meccap. 136
A change in the substance of faithp. 139
The Original Paradigm of the Islamic Communityp. 143
Abiding substance of faith-changing paradigmsp. 143
Is there also a paradigm change in Islam?p. 144
New epoch-making constellationsp. 146
A religious vision realizedp. 147
The new Islamic communityp. 147
A religion of law?p. 149
Test cases: blood vengeance, the prohibition of usury, the ban on alcoholp. 150
The new responsibility of the individualp. 152
Arab and Muslim virtuesp. 153
The religious and social transformationp. 155
The stabilization of marriage and familyp. 155
Women-highly valued or discriminated against?p. 157
The Islamic constitution-a divine statep. 158
What is Islamic and what is Arab-Bedouin?p. 160
From the Prophet to the Prophet's representativep. 161
Who is to lead?p. 162
The choice of a successor: Abu Bakr, the first caliphp. 163
From the desert to the confrontation with the high culturesp. 164
The original community expandsp. 166
Islamic politics: 'Umar, the second caliphp. 166
How was Arab-Islamic expansion possible?p. 168
The first wave of conquest and the great confrontation with Christianityp. 170
Neither assimilation of the Muslims nor conversion of the Christiansp. 172
The beginnings of Islamic theology and lawp. 176
A Meccan, not an Islamic policy: 'Uthman, the third caliphp. 176
From word of mouth to writing: the Qur'an as a bookp. 177
An Islamic theology?p. 178
The germs of local theologiesp. 179
Still no specifically Islamic system of lawp. 181
The great crisis in the original community: the split into partiesp. 182
'Ali, the fourth caliph-disputedp. 183
The first civil warp. 184
The split between Sunnis, Kharijites and Shiitesp. 185
The memory of the golden agep. 187
The Paradigm of the Arab Empirep. 189
From Medina to Damascus: the new centre of powerp. 189
The Umayyads come to power: Mu'awiyyahp. 190
A centralist monarchy developsp. 192
The establishment of the dynastic principlep. 192
The Shiite oppositionp. 194
Husayn-the model for all martyrsp. 196
A separate 'confession': the Shiahp. 197
The new bearer of the hope of the opposition, the Mahdi; the second civil warp. 198
Imperial religious politics under the aegis of Islamp. 201
A pious autocrat: 'Abd al-Malikp. 201
Introduction of a Muslim currencyp. 204
Arabic becomes the official languagep. 204
Art is Islamizedp. 205
The origin of Islamic lawp. 208
State judges: the qadisp. 208
Islamization of the law: pious specialistsp. 209
The theoretical foundation of the lawp. 211
A new community of many peoplesp. 212
From patriarchal regime to imperial governmentp. 213
The dividing walls collapsep. 213
Arabs and non-Arabs mixp. 214
A world empire comes into beingp. 215
Paradigm change in foreign and military policyp. 217
The second wave of conquest: an empire from India to Spainp. 217
The second great confrontation with Christianityp. 219
A theological controversy with political consequencesp. 220
Predestination by God-theologically disputedp. 222
Human self-determination-politically dangerous: the Qadaritesp. 223
Still no theological orthodoxyp. 225
Recourse to the Qur'an: the Kharijitesp. 226
Postponement of judgement: the Murjitesp. 229
The crisis of the empirep. 230
What is to be done with the new Muslims? The reform caliphate of 'Umar IIp. 230
A coup and an inaugural sermonp. 232
Towards the third civil warp. 234
The end of the Arab empirep. 235
The paradigm of the Arab empire as a vision of hope: Pan-Arabismp. 238
The Classical Paradigm of Islam as a World Religionp. 241
A new era beginsp. 241
Baghdad, the new cultural metropolis of Islamp. 242
Islam as a world religion instead of the Arab nationp. 244
The cosmopolitan splendour of the caliphatep. 246
How the caliphs ruledp. 248
A tale from The 1001 Nights?p. 252
Classical Islam: a world culturep. 254
Arabic as a language of communication and a high languagep. 255
Persian education and way of lifep. 257
Hellenistic philosophy and sciencep. 258
The new role of the religious scholarsp. 259
Classical Islamic law: the Shariahp. 261
The formation of the 'traditions of the Prophet', the Sunnahp. 263
What the Prophet said and did: the hadithp. 263
The science of the hadithp. 264
The victory of the traditionistsp. 265
Are the hadith authentic?p. 266
A second source of revelation?p. 268
The four great law schoolsp. 269
The Malikite and Hanafite law schoolsp. 270
The classical juristic synthesis: ash-Shafi'ip. 271
The traditionalist principle becomes establishedp. 272
Is the door of 'legal findings' closed? Ibn Hanbalp. 275
Does innovation become fossilized tradition?p. 276
The second theological dispute: revelation and reasonp. 278
The new importance of reasonp. 278
The beginnings of rational theology: Wasil and 'Amrp. 280
Confrontation with the caliphate?p. 282
The paradigm of a rational theologyp. 283
A God without properties? Jahmp. 284
God has properties: Abu l-Hudhayl's rational systemp. 286
What are the consequences for the image of human beings?p. 288
The state and theologyp. 289
The fourth civil war and its consequences for theologyp. 289
An Islamic magisterium: al-Ma'mun and the Mu'tazilitesp. 291
Is inquisition ('examination') in keeping with the mind of the Prophet?p. 292
The Mut' azilites gain and lose powerp. 293
Rational theology is subsumed into traditional theology: al-Ash'arip. 295
The disintegration of the empirep. 299
The crisis of the institutionsp. 299
The end of the world empirep. 301
The classical paradigm of a world religion as an image of hope: Pan-Islamismp. 302
The Paradigm of the Ulama and Sufisp. 305
After one empire, many statesp. 305
Regionalization in east and westp. 307
The third confrontation between Islam and Christianity: the crusadesp. 308
The post-imperial period: anti-caliphsp. 311
The Turks as heirs of the Islamic empire: sultans instead of caliphsp. 313
The Mongol invasion and its devastating consequencesp. 315
The Ulama: legal schools become popular movementsp. 317
Functions: training cadres, forming communities, networkingp. 317
The new form of organization: the madrasahp. 318
Popular movements and party factionsp. 319
Is there an alternative to an Islam of the law?p. 321
The Sufis: mystics form themselves into brotherhoodsp. 323
Is mysticism an original element of Islam? Asceticism at the beginningp. 324
Is mysticism un-Islamic? Personal experience of Godp. 326
The goal of mysticism-abiding life in God: Muhasibi and Junaydp. 329
Does mysticism have limits? The conflict over al-Hallajp. 332
Sufism as a mass movementp. 334
The regulation of the Sufi communitiesp. 335
Parallels to Christian religious ordersp. 337
Social work, mission, warp. 337
No progress for womenp. 339
Shadow sides of Sufismp. 340
A religion of the heart instead of a religion of reason?p. 342
Normative theologyp. 343
The long way of theologyp. 344
A synthesis of Shariah Islam and Sufi Islam: al-Ghazalip. 346
Where does fundamental certainty come from? A forerunner of Descartes?p. 347
Which way of life: theology, philosophy, esotericism?p. 350
The crisis and the turn towards mysticismp. 352
Theological Summasp. 354
Two masters of theology: al-Ghazali and Thomas Aquinasp. 355
Parallels in lifep. 356
Parallels in workp. 357
Differences of style, method and interestp. 359
Different overall structuresp. 361
The abiding fundamental differencep. 361
Fossilization or renewal of theology?p. 363
The rise and fall of Arabic philosophyp. 365
Can there be an independent Islamic philosophy?p. 366
Beginnings of Arabic philosophy: al-Kindi, ar-Razi, al-Farabip. 368
The high point of historic Arabic philosophy: Ibn Sinap. 369
The end of Arabic Islamic philosophy: Ibn Rushdp. 371
Al-Andalus: an Arabized Christianityp. 373
Al-Andalus: a fertile symbiosis of Muslims and Jewsp. 374
One dominant religion, two recognized minoritiesp. 376
History as a cycle of rise and decline: Ibn Khaldunp. 378
The crisis of medieval Islamp. 379
The beginning of Western Christian philosophyp. 379
A continuation of the Middle Ages instead of a renaissancep. 382
The victory of traditionalism: al-Mawardi, Ibn Taymiyyahp. 384
Freedom, reason, human dignity?p. 386
The Paradigm of Islamic Modernizationp. 389
Confrontation with European modernityp. 390
Is Islam to blame for the stagnation?p. 390
Islamic expansion in India, South Africa and South-East Asiap. 393
Different social structuresp. 394
Why was there no Islamic reformation?p. 395
The great Islamic empires: Mughals, Safavids, Ottomansp. 397
The Indian Mughal empire: Akbar's unitary religionp. 397
'Re-islamization' and declinep. 400
The Persian Safavid empire: the first Shiite statep. 401
Shiite piety and politicsp. 402
The Turkish Ottoman empire: the new Muslim world powerp. 403
The difference in South-East Asian Islamp. 405
How Europe challenged the world of Islamp. 406
The thrust towards modernization I: the scientific and philosophical revolutionp. 407
A paradigm change in Islam?p. 408
The thrust towards modernization II: the cultural and theological revolutionp. 410
Enlightenment in Islam?p. 411
The thrust towards modernization III: the political and democratic revolutionp. 412
Islam and the French Revolutionp. 413
The thrust towards modernization IV: the technological and industrial revolutionp. 414
Reforms in Islam?p. 415
Questions for European modernityp. 416
Between reform and reactionp. 417
Ulama for reforms: Islamic reformismp. 417
Opposition to the reforms: Islamic traditionalismp. 419
The new elites: Islamic modernismp. 421
European imperialism: a paradigm of confrontation and aggressionp. 423
Secular nationalism: the downfall of the Ottoman empirep. 425
Arab renaissance?p. 427
Challenges of the Present
Competition between Paradigmsp. 433
The secularist wayp. 433
Turkish secularism: Mustafa Kemal Ataturkp. 434
Radical rejection of the Shariahp. 436
The Islamist wayp. 437
Feudal Arabic Islamism: the Wahhabism of Saudi Arabiap. 438
Political-social radical Islamism: Khomeini's Islamic revolutionp. 441
The socialist wayp. 444
Arab socialism: Egyptp. 444
Pan-Arabism: Syriap. 446
Aggressive nationalism: Iraqp. 448
What Kind of Islam do Muslims Want?p. 455
The contemporaneity of competing paradigmsp. 455
Pan-Islamism?p. 456
Pan-Arabism?p. 457
Islamism?p. 458
Socialism?p. 462
Secularism?p. 463
Islam in a constant state of changep. 464
Questions to traditionalists, secularists and reformersp. 464
A chasm in knowledge that is growing dramaticallyp. 466
How is the gap in education to be closed?p. 468
The Middle East Conflict and a New Paradigmp. 471
Causes of conflictp. 471
The state of Israel on Palestinian landp. 472
The Arab dilemma: Israel either un-Jewish or undemocraticp. 475
No end to the tragedy?p. 478
Persisting in the old paradigmp. 478
What could bep. 479
Opportunities for the new paradigmp. 481
New Approaches to Theological Conversationp. 485
Yesterday's methodsp. 485
The traditional controversyp. 486
The defensive strategies on both sidesp. 487
Dialogue about Jesusp. 489
Jesus in the Qur'an: God's messenger, not sonp. 489
What does it mean for Jesus to be God's son?p. 491
What could Muhammad have known?p. 494
An affinity between the Qur'anic and the Jewish-Christian understandings of Christp. 495
Reflecting on the crossp. 497
Jesus fully integrated into the Islamic traditionp. 499
What are the opportunities for a 'trialogue' on Jesus? Does it ask too much?p. 501
Speculative Questionsp. 504
Monotheism and Trinityp. 504
The Muslim belief in one God versus the Christian Trinityp. 504
Is criticism of the Qur'an legitimate?p. 506
Is there a distinction in God?p. 508
Reflection on the Biblep. 509
How do we speak of Father, Son and Spirit in biblical terms?p. 510
Christ and the Trinity: from the Bible to dogmap. 510
The situation of interreligious dialoguep. 515
Stages of time and systems of languagep. 516
From Biblical Criticism to Qur'anic Criticism?p. 518
Literal revelation?p. 518
The Bible-is every word inspired?p. 518
The Qur'an-the question of historical contingencyp. 520
Critical exegesisp. 521
The exegesis of the Qur'an-phases and problemsp. 521
Beginnings of a modern exegesis of the Qur'anp. 523
Diversity of approaches and formsp. 524
Insights and hypotheses of Western exegesis of the Qur'anp. 526
New insights of Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anp. 528
A time-sensitive understanding of the Qur'anp. 528
Historical-critical hermeneutics of the Qur'anp. 529
Historical-anthropological hermeneutics of the Qur'anp. 530
Pluralistic-political hermeneutics of the Qur'anp. 532
What could a time-sensitive understanding of the Qur'an mean today?p. 533
Possibilities for the Future
Islamic Renewalp. 539
The programmep. 539
Factors in the revivalp. 540
Renewal as a return to the originsp. 541
Islam-the 'third force' for the future?p. 542
Approaches towards realizationp. 543
Turkey-a laboratory for Islamic democracy?p. 544
Pioneer Islamic thinkersp. 547
Critical dialogue also with moderate Islamistsp. 548
The Future of the Islamic Legal Orderp. 551
The challenge to traditional legal systemsp. 551
The spread of legalism-in all three prophetic religionsp. 552
Catching up with the Reformationp. 554
Reintroduction of the Shariah? Nigeria, the test casep. 555
The challenge of modern legal systemsp. 557
Human rights-a test case for Christianity and Judaismp. 558
Human rights-a test case for Islamp. 559
An Islamic basis for human rights?p. 561
Religions and women-a relationship of tensionp. 562
Equal rights for women in Christianity and Judaism?p. 562
Equal rights for women in Islam?p. 564
Muslim women for women's rightsp. 566
Reforms are indispensablep. 570
Protection of minorities?p. 570
Is the Shariah simply a code of life?p. 572
Towards a modern Shariahp. 573
General ethical framework: rights and responsibilitiesp. 575
The Future of Islamic State Order and Politicsp. 578
State and religion-united or separated?p. 578
A trilateral comparisonp. 578
Religion and state in Judaismp. 580
Separation of religion and state with Jesus of Nazareth?p. 581
The different context of the Prophet Muhammadp. 585
State and religion in Christianity and Islamp. 585
Secularity without secularismp. 587
Farewell to aggressive universalistic Christian and Muslim claimsp. 587
Future perspectives for Islam and Christianityp. 588
Religious freedom-even to change religion?p. 589
Religion, violence and 'holy wars'p. 591
Does monotheism have a special propensity to Violence?p. 591
Holy wars of Yahweh?p. 592
Violence in the sign of the crossp. 595
'Holy wars' of Muslims?p. 597
War or peace?p. 599
Realm of Islam-realm of warp. 599
Radicalization of the idea of jihad?p. 600
A hermeneutic of peacemakingp. 602
A pedagogy of peacemakingp. 603
A pragmatic of peacemakingp. 604
The Future of the Islamic Economic Orderp. 606
Is Islam the solution?p. 606
The Mediterranean between piracy and good neighbourlinessp. 606
Why the economic backwardness?p. 607
The prohibition of usury-required and evadedp. 608
Islamic traditions rediscoveredp. 611
Islamic banking systemsp. 611
Islamic foundationsp. 612
Commerce and ethicsp. 613
Ethical principles for commerce in keeping with Islamp. 613
The need for an ethical frameworkp. 615
Islamic commercial principles as a bridgep. 616
The Future of the Islamic Way of Lifep. 619
Do clothes make people?p. 619
Problems for Christian churches with the veilp. 620
The commandment for head coverings for Muslim women-not in the Qur'anp. 621
What is at issue in the dispute over the headscarf?p. 623
Walking the tightrope between Islamism and secularismp. 624
An Islamist fundamentalismp. 625
A secularist fundamentalismp. 626
Neither Islamism nor secularism as a modelp. 627
Dialogue rather than clashp. 629
Not prohibition but understandingp. 629
Pragmatic, not ideological solutionsp. 632
A short excursus on the German legal situationp. 633
Controversies centred on the mosquep. 635
Mosquesp. 635
Minaretsp. 637
The call to prayerp. 637
Legal standpoint or dialogue?p. 639
Muslims, Christians and Jews-together in prayer?p. 640
An ecumenical prayerp. 641
Epilogue: Islam, an Image of Hopep. 643
From a hostile image to an image of hopep. 643
The fateful question for Islamp. 644
Contemporary Islamp. 645
An enlightened sense of religionp. 647
The modern differentiation of religionp. 648
Islam-only a part-system?p. 648
Ethics as the foundation of democracy-in Islam toop. 650
Islam as a help in lifep. 651
Islam and world problems: the population explosion as a test casep. 652
The Muslim contribution dialogue among civilizationsp. 654
Bridges into the futurep. 654
Shared ethical standards and universal human valuesp. 656
The Islamic foundation for a global ethicp. 656
The basis for an understanding between Islam and the Westp. 658
Conclusionp. 661
Notesp. 663
Indexp. 743
List of tables and mapsp. 763
A word of thanksp. 765
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781851683772
ISBN-10: 1851683771
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 767
Published: 14th July 2007
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.0  x 6.35
Weight (kg): 1.36
Edition Number: 1

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