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Iron and Steamship Archaeology : Success and Failure on the S/S Xantho' - Michael McCarthy

Iron and Steamship Archaeology

Success and Failure on the S/S Xantho'

Hardcover Published: 31st January 2001
ISBN: 9780306463655
Number Of Pages: 234

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In the early 1980s the author was asked to investigate the newly discovered wreck of the Xantho, an iron screw steamship active off the Australian coast during the period 1848 to 1872, and to develop a strategy to stop the looting that was occurring at the site. This relatively straightforward assignment turned into a long-term research program for applying maritime archaeology to the conservation of iron-hulled wrecks.

Industry Reviews

`McCarthy has done an outstanding job detailing an excavation form first notification to the last conservation stages. This might serve well as a text in maritime archaeology theory, maritime history, or conversation courses. All collections.'
Choice, 38:11 (2001)

Introduction
Description, Analysis and Explanation at a Steam Ship Wreckp. 1
Descriptionp. 1
Analysis and Explanationp. 3
Xantho and Broadhurst in context
The Context of the Findp. 7
Marine Engineeringp. 8
The iron hullp. 8
Marine propulsionp. 11
Boilers, condensers, and other machineryp. 15
The advent of compoundingp. 19
The "ideal" 1870s steamerp. 24
The Colonial Settingp. 24
Steamers in Western Australiap. 25
The Broadhursts in Context: An Inadequate Recordp. 29
Victorian squattersp. 32
Northwest pastoralistsp. 32
Pearlers in the northwestp. 36
Broadhurst and Xanthop. 40
Xantho: A transport for pearl diversp. 42
Xantho the tramp steamer: An indigenous record?p. 44
The last voyagep. 46
Xantho-the transformations
A Wealth of Informationp. 48
The Specifications: Construction as a Paddle Steamerp. 48
The First Transformationp. 52
Xantho: A hybrid refugee from the scrap heapp. 52
The Loss of Xantho: The Second Transformationp. 54
Abandonment behavior and its effect on the material recordp. 56
Breakup and Salvage: The Third Transformationp. 57
Another Contemporary Record of Xantho?p. 59
Xantho: A Navigational Hazardp. 61
The wreck examined
Processes in Wreck Site Analysisp. 65
The Discovery and Inspection of the Sitep. 65
Early Iron and Steamship Archaeology Examinedp. 67
A Predisturbance Study: New Direction in 1983p. 68
Natural transformation forces analyzedp. 70
Results of the predisturbance surveyp. 73
Anomalous Features Identifiedp. 75
Site Survey and Test Excavationp. 77
Test Excavation Methodp. 79
Results of the Survey and Test Excavationp. 81
The Application of Anodesp. 84
Site formation processes
Postdepositional Processes at an Iron Wreckp. 88
The Effect of Corrosion and Concretionp. 88
Muckelroy's Index Applied to Modern Sitesp. 90
John Riley's Observations: The Waterline Theoryp. 95
Other Commonalities Observedp. 97
The Formation of the Xantho Sitep. 104
The investigation continues in the archives
The Archival and Material Records at Oddsp. 108
The Material Record Incorrectly Readp. 110
Distortions in the Written Recordp. 112
The Naval Origins of the Xantho Enginep. 113
Broadhurst Revisitedp. 118
Pearling at Shark Bayp. 120
American influencesp. 120
Broadhurst: A great successp. 121
Broadhurst: The consistent failurep. 122
Broadhurst's other enterprisesp. 122
Excavations at the site
Excavation Processesp. 125
The Research Strategyp. 125
Preliminary Fieldworkp. 126
Further Site Assessmentsp. 127
The Engine Cut Freep. 129
Budgets and Rewardsp. 130
The Iron and Steamship Wreck Seminarp. 131
The Excavationp. 132
The Engine Removedp. 134
The Excavation and Recording of the Sternp. 135
The Stern Cut Freep. 139
Subsequent On-Site Excavationsp. 141
An Unsuccessful Attempt to Examine Nineteenth-Century Shipbuilding Methodp. 143
A Clue to the Rapidity of Concretion Formationp. 144
Results of the 1984-1994 Excavationsp. 145
Excavation in the laboratory
Deconcretion: Excavation and Experimentationp. 147
The Removal of Chlorides Explainedp. 149
Deconcretion of the Outer Surfacesp. 149
Engineering Anomalies Identifiedp. 156
Further Deconcretionp. 158
Unexpected Conservation Problemsp. 159
Further Evidence of Abandonment Behaviourp. 159
The Externals Totally Deconcretedp. 160
The Engine Modelp. 161
Engine Markings: Broadhurst Reassessedp. 163
The Disassembly of the Enginep. 166
The direct flame method applied to the Xanthop. 167
A Concretion Formation Model Proposedp. 167
Further Experiments in Deconcretionp. 168
Analogy in Engine Excavationp. 169
Dismantling the Machineryp. 170
Entering the Cylindersp. 173
The British Standard Whitworth (BSW) Threadp. 174
Further Evidence of Poor Maintenancep. 175
A Setback in the Final Stagesp. 177
Conclusion
Iron Wrecks as Archaeological Sitesp. 180
Description and Analysisp. 181
Analysis and Explanationp. 185
The Xantho/Broadhurst Exhibitionp. 194
Appendices
Appendix 1: Horsepowerp. 196
Nominal Horsepowerp. 197
Indicated Horse Powerp. 198
Appendix 2: Wages and Salaries in 1870p. 200
Bibliographyp. 201
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306463655
ISBN-10: 0306463652
Series: The Springer Underwater Archaeology
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 234
Published: 31st January 2001
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.53

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