In this seminal work, Terence Brown examines, with grace and wit, the most eventful century in Irish history. The post-Treaty period in Ireland has been an era of intense debate about the nature and future of Irish society and culture. In a state born in violence and divided by bitter quarrels, wars both literal and cultural have raged over what it means to be Irish--and what it is possible for Ireland to achieve. Professor Brown traces the development of modern Ireland through nationalism, industrialism, religion, language revival, and censorship combined with an assessment of the major literary and artistic advances accomplished in this climate. Now updated for the new millennium, this is a classic study of an emergent nation.