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Ion Sources - Jianrong Zhang

Hardcover Published: 8th November 1999
ISBN: 9783540657477
Number Of Pages: 476

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While dealing with the design and operation of ion sources, this book additionally discusses the physics of ion formation of the various elements with different charge states and charge neutralization. Ion selection and beam diagnostics are equally included, and the presentation of the necessary equations and diagrams for the various parameters makes this a useful handbook for ion sources.

Introductionp. 1
Major Applications and Requirementsp. 1
Performances and Research Subjectsp. 1
Historical Developmentp. 8
Gas Discharge Fundamentalsp. 11
Thermionic Emissionp. 11
Secondary Electron Emissionp. 12
Surface Ionizationp. 13
Elastic and Inelastic Collisionsp. 16
Collision and Probability of Collisionp. 16
Elastic Collision and Its Cross Sectionp. 18
Inelastic Collisionp. 20
Ionization Cross Sectionp. 21
Recombination of Charged Particlesp. 22
Mobilityp. 23
Diffusion Coefficientp. 25
Particle Distribution in a Retardation Regionp. 26
Ambipolar Diffusionp. 26
Magnetic Field Influence on Particle Motionp. 28
Fundamentals of a Hot-Cathode Arc Sourcep. 29
Stable Theory of the Cathode Double Sheathp. 29
Bipolar Flowp. 30
CathodeDoubleSheathp. 31
Cathode Double Sheath Oscillations and Noisep. 34
Scattering of Primary Electronsp. 35
Beam-Plasma Interactionp. 36
Positive Column Plasmap. 38
Anode Regionp. 44
Minimum Pressurep. 45
Referencesp. 46
Extraction Systems for Ion Sourcesp. 47
Extraction Systems Requirementsp. 47
Extraction System with a Solid Emitterp. 48
Space-Charge-Limited Flow for an Ideal Diodep. 48
Plane Diodep. 48
Cylindrical Diodep. 51
Spherical Diodep. 51
Some Universal Relationshipsp. 52
Space-Charge-Limited Flow with Multiple Ion Speciesp. 54
Pierce-Shape Extraction Systemp. 56
High-Perveance Electron Gunp. 57
Emittance and Brightnessp. 58
Emittancep. 58
Brightnessp. 60
Relation Between Brightness and Emittancep. 61
Effective Emittancep. 62
Emittance and Brightness of an Ion Sourcep. 63
Ion Extraction from a Plasmap. 65
Plasma-Sheath Equation and the Emitting Current from a Plasmap. 65
The "Extractable Flow" from an Extraction Systemp. 70
Adjustment of Ion Emissive Surfacep. 71
Comparison between a Plasma Ion Source and an Electron Gun Extraction Systemp. 72
Geometry of Extraction Systemsp. 73
Typical Types and Geometriesp. 73
Probe Extraction Systems for Low Plasma Densityp. 76
Principle and Analytical Modelp. 76
Experimental Resultsp. 79
Aperture Extraction Systems for Medium Plasma Densityp. 79
Analytical Model for a Two-Electrode Systemp. 80
Circular Three Electrode Extraction Systemp. 83
Slit Extraction Systemp. 86
Four Electrode Extraction Systemp. 89
Expansion Cup Extraction System for High Plasma Densityp. 90
Some Properties of a Diffusing Plasmap. 90
Extraction System of a Duoplasmatron Sourcep. 92
Large-Area Multi-Aperture Extraction Systemsp. 95
Multi-aperture Beam Focusing by Aperture Displacementp. 96
Power Loading of the Electrodesp. 100
Grid-controlled Extraction Systemp. 101
Research Methods of Extraction Systemsp. 103
Experimental Researchp. 103
Analytical Approaches to Beam Opticsp. 103
Numerical Simulationsp. 104
Physical Modelsp. 104
Physical Equationsp. 106
Some Resultsp. 108
Some Other Problemsp. 110
Transverse Magnetic Field Effects on Ion Extractionp. 110
Technological Problems of Extraction Systemsp. 111
Suppression of Breakdown in the Lateral Extraction Ion Sourcep. 111
Some Technological Problemsp. 112
Referencesp. 113
Positive Ion Sourcesp. 116
Classification of Ion Sourcesp. 116
Hot Cathodesp. 118
Requirements and Types of Hot Cathodesp. 118
Cathode Material and Lifetimep. 119
Effects of Discharge Currentp. 122
Magnetic Field Effects of the Filament Currentp. 122
Plasma Cathodesp. 123
Arc Source in a Uniform Magnetic Fieldp. 125
Hot-Cathode Penning Sourcep. 131
Simple Principlep. 131
Typical Structuresp. 134
Duoplasmatron Ion Sourcep. 135
General Principlep. 135
Formation of the Constriction Double Sheathp. 137
Primary Parametersp. 138
Heavy Ion Duoplasmatron Sourcep. 141
Hot-Cathode "Freeman" Sourcep. 142
Broad Beam Ion Sourcesp. 144
Cold-Cathode PIG Sourcep. 148
Principles of a Cold-Cathode Penning Dischargep. 148
Cold-Cathode PIG Sourcesp. 149
Radio-Frequency Ion Sourcep. 153
Principle of an RF Dischargep. 153
Magnetic Field Effects and Structuresp. 157
Heavy Ion RF Sourcesp. 159
Metallic Ion RF Sourcesp. 159
RF Ion Source for Ion Thrustersp. 161
RF Tritium Ion Sourcep. 162
Beam Current Modulation from RF Sourcesp. 162
Technology of Heavy Ion Sourcesp. 163
Special Requirements for Heavy Ion Sourcesp. 163
Types of Heavy Ion Sourcesp. 164
Surface Ionization and Thermionic Emission Sourcep. 165
High Field Ion Sourcep. 168
Gas Field Ionization Sourcep. 169
Liquid Metal Ion Sourcep. 170
Feed Materialp. 174
Methods of Vapor Transportp. 176
Design and Operation of Heavy Ion Sourcesp. 179
Referencesp. 182
Giant Ion Sourcesp. 187
DuoPIGatron Ion Sourcep. 188
Essential Principlep. 188
Improvement of the Plasma Uniformityp. 190
Typical Resultsp. 193
Periplasmatron Ion Sourcep. 196
Multifilament Ion Sourcep. 197
Essential Principlep. 197
Multifilaments and Multislot Extraction Electrodep. 199
Ionization Efficiencyp. 200
Typical Resultsp. 201
Magnetic Multipole Ion Sourcep. 203
General Descriptionp. 203
Magnetic Multipole (Multicusp) Fieldp. 204
Confinement Principle of a Cusped Fieldp. 204
Magnetic Field Configurationp. 206
Influence of Other Parametersp. 209
Typical Results and Applicationsp. 212
Hall Acceleratorp. 213
Cluster Ion Sourcep. 216
Intense Pulsed Ion Sourcep. 218
Reflex Triodep. 219
Magnetically Insulated Ion Diodep. 220
Anode Plasma and Structurep. 222
Referencesp. 225
Multiply Charged Ion Sourcesp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Formation of Multiply Charged Ionsp. 231
Physical Definitions for Multiple Ionizationp. 231
Ionization Potentialp. 231
Total and Partial Ionization Cross Sectionp. 232
Distribution of Charge States and Average Charge Statep. 233
Formation of Multiply Charged Ionsp. 233
Multiple Ionization by Single Collisionsp. 233
Stepwise Single Ionization of Ionsp. 235
Stepwise Multiple Ionization of Ionsp. 238
Ionization of Metastable Atoms or Ionsp. 238
Loss Processes of Multiply Charged Ionsp. 239
Loss by Charge Transferp. 239
Loss by Recombinationp. 240
Loss by Diffusionp. 241
Balance Equations for Ion Charge Statesp. 243
Multiply Charged Ion Generation by Stripping of Fast Ionsp. 246
Major Research of MCISp. 246
Multiply Charged Electron Beam Ion Sourcep. 249
Electron Beam Ion Sourcep. 249
Typical Structurep. 249
Essential Principle and Resultsp. 251
Electron Beam Ion Trapp. 255
Time-of-Flight EBIS (TOFEBIS)p. 256
Conventional Multiply Charged Ion Sourcesp. 256
Penning Multicharged Ion Sourcep. 256
Introduction, Types, and Typical Structuresp. 256
The Essential Principle of Generating Multiply Charged Ions in a PIG Sourcep. 257
Experimental Resultsp. 258
Duoplasmatron MCISp. 261
Other Plasma Discharge MCISp. 263
Radio-Frequency Ion Sourcep. 263
Electrostatic Oscillating Electron Ion Sourcep. 263
Trapped Ion Sourcep. 264
Microwave Ion Sourcesp. 264
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Multiply Charged Ion Sourcep. 264
Development and Typical Structurep. 264
Essential Principles and Resultsp. 268
High Intensity Microwave Ion Sourcep. 277
Cavity Type Microwave Ion Sourcep. 277
Antenna Type Microwave Ion Sourcep. 281
High-intensity Microwave Proton Sourcep. 282
Hot Electron Layer Ion Source (HELIOS)p. 284
Beam-Plasma Ion Sourcep. 285
High Density Plasma Sourcesp. 286
Laser Multiply Charged Ion Sourcep. 286
Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc Ion Sourcesp. 292
Vacuum Spark Ion Sourcep. 297
Referencesp. 297
Mass and Energy Spectra of Ion Sourcesp. 304
Mass Spectra of a Hydrogen Ion Sourcep. 304
Physical Processes Effecting the Mass Spectrap. 305
Particle Balance Equations for Determining the Mass Spectrap. 310
Proton Content of an RF Ion Sourcep. 313
Mass Spectra of a Magnetic Multipole Ion Sourcep. 314
Mass Spectra of a Duoplasmatron Ion Sourcep. 315
Mass Spectra of a Hot-Cathode PIG Ion Sourcep. 316
Mass Spectra of a Cold-Cathode PIG Ion Sourcep. 317
Energy Spectra of Ion Sourcesp. 318
Physical Cause of the Energy Spreadp. 318
Energy Spectra of an RF Ion Sourcep. 319
Energy Spectra of Other Ion Sourcesp. 322
Referencesp. 323
Negative Ion Sourcesp. 325
Introductionp. 325
Electron Affinityp. 325
Historical Developmentp. 326
Negative Ion Formation Processesp. 327
Volume Formation of Negative Ionsp. 328
H- Formation by Electron Impactp. 328
Negative Ion Formation by Multiple Charge-Transferp. 332
Surface Formation of Negative Ionsp. 338
Work-function of Surfacesp. 338
Surface Sputteringp. 342
Essential Principlep. 343
Distributions of Sputtered Particlesp. 347
Particle Reflection from a Solid Surfacep. 348
Essential Principlesp. 348
Parameter Dependence of Reflectionp. 349
Distribution of Reflected Particlesp. 350
Secondary Ion Emissionp. 352
General Principlesp. 352
H- Ion Formation by Particle and Surface Interactionp. 355
Other Negative Ions Formed by Sputteringp. 356
Negative Surface Ionizationp. 357
Destruction of Negative Ionsp. 358
Destruction Processes of Negative Ionsp. 358
Cross-Sections of H- Destructionp. 359
Volume H- Ion Sourcep. 361
Duoplasmatron Negative Ion Sourcesp. 361
Penning Negative Ion Sourcesp. 363
Magnetically Filtered Multicusp Volume Sourcesp. 364
Essential Principlep. 364
Magnetic Filterp. 364
Dependence on Various Parametersp. 366
Cesium Seeded Multicusp H- Sourcep. 368
Giant H- Ion Sourcesp. 368
Other Volume Production Negative Ion Sourcesp. 371
H- Ion Extraction and Electron Suppressionp. 372
Surface-Plasma H- Ion Sourcesp. 374
Magnetron H- Ion Sourcesp. 374
Penning Surface-Plasma H- Ion Sourcesp. 377
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540657477
ISBN-10: 3540657479
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 476
Published: 8th November 1999
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.93