There was a long felt need for this book in industrial and academic institutions. It provides new engineers, as well as practicing engineers and advanced laboratory personnel in the field of semiconductors a clear and thorough discussion of state-of-the-art silicon devices, without resorting to the complexity of higher mathematics and physics. This difficult task was made possible by detailing the explanation of equations that describe the device operation and characteristics without endeavoring their full derivation. This is reinforced by several problems which reflect practical cases observed in the laboratory. The problems are given after introducing a major equation or concept. They are arranged in the order of the text rather than in the order of difficulty. The answers to most of the problems are given in order to enable the student to "self-check" the method used for the solutions. The illustrations may prove to be of great help to "newcomers" when dealing with the characterization of real devices and relating the measured data to device physics and process parameters.
The new engineer will find the book equivalent to "on the job training" and acquire a working knowledge of the fundamental principles underlying silicon devices. For the engineer with theoretical background, it offers a means for direct application of solid state theory to device analysis and synthesis. The book originated from a set of notes developed for an in-house one-year course in Device Physics, Technology and Characterization at IBM.
1. Resistances and Their Measurements.- 1.0 Introduction.- 1.1 Resistance.- 1.2 Resistivity.- 1.3 Current Density.- 1.4 Electric Field, Mobility, Conductivity and Resistivity.- 1.5 Carrier Concentrations.- 1.6 Sheet Resistance and Techniques for its Evaluation.- 1.7 Line Width and Mask Alignments.- 1.8 The Spreading Resistance Technique.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- 2. PN Junctions.- 2.0 Introduction.- 2.1 Description of PN Junction.- 2.2 Fabrication of A PN Junction.- 2.3 Characteristics of the PN Junction at Thermal Equilibrium.- 2.4 Forward Biased PN Junction.- 2.5 Reverse Biased PN Junction.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- 3. The Bipolar Transistor.- 3.0 Introduction.- 3.1 Transistor Action.- 3.2 A Typical Bipolar Process Sequence.- 3.3 Injection Parameters, Wide Base Region.- 3.4 Injection Parameters, Narrow Base Region.- 3.5 The Schottky Barrier Diode.- 3.6 Maximum Transistor Voltage Limitations.- 3.7 High-Current Transistor Characteristics.- 3.8 High-Frequency and Switching Behavior.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- 4. The MIS CV Technique.- 4.0 Introduction.- 4.1 The Insulator Capacitance.- 4.2 The Ideal MOS System.- 4.3 Description and Analysis of an Ideal Cv-Curve.- 4.4 The Real MIS Structure.- 4.5 Methods to Evaluate CV-Plots.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- 5. Surface Effects on PN Junctions.- 5.0 Introduction.- 5.1 Ideal Structure without Applied Bias.- 5.2 Ideal Structure with Applied Bias on the Gate.- 5.3 Effect of Insulator Charge and Work-Function Difference.- 5.4 Body-Effect or Substrate Bias Sensitivity.- 5.5 Reverse Current.- 5.6 Effect of Gate Bias on the Junction Breakdown Voltage.- 5.7 Injection of Hot Carriers into the Insulator.- 5.8 Surface Effects on the Junction Forward Characteristics.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- 6. Insulated-Gate-Field-Effect-Transistor (IGFET).- 6.0 Introduction.- 6.1 Principle of Operation.- 6.2 Fabrication Techniques.- 6.3 Current-Voltage Characteristics, Long and Wide Channel, Uniform Substrate.- 6.4 Non-Uniform Substrate Profile.- 6.5 Second-Order Effects, Device Limits and Design Considerations.- 6.6 Types of IGFETs and Applications.- 6.7 CMOS.- Summary of Important Equations.- References.- Universal Physical Constants.- Conversion Factors.- The Greek Alphabet.
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Number Of Pages: 570
Published: December 2009
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5
Weight (kg): 2.22