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Introduction to Color Imaging Science - Hsien-Che Lee

Introduction to Color Imaging Science

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Published: 11th February 2011
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Colour imaging technology has become almost ubiquitous in modern life in the form of monitors, liquid crystal screens, colour printers, scanners, and digital cameras. This book is a comprehensive guide to the scientific and engineering principles of colour imaging. It covers the physics of light and colour, how the eye and physical devices capture colour images, how colour is measured and calibrated, and how images are processed. It stresses physical principles and includes a wealth of real-world examples. The book will be of value to scientists and engineers in the colour imaging industry and, with homework problems, can also be used as a text for graduate courses on colour imaging.

'... although titled an introduction, this book is a detailed and comprehensive coverage of colour imaging running to over 690 pages ... the structure and flow is excellent, especially considering the breadth of information provided ...'. IEE Communications Engineer 'The book is unique in its dual presentation of models and theories. Physics and mathematics are made clear, and the author states the assumptions of the models and their applicability and limitations. I know of no other book that compares with Color Imaging Science, and I strongly recommend it.' Optic and Photonics News

Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. 1
What is color imaging science?p. 1
Overview of the bookp. 2
Measurement of light and colorp. 2
Optical image formationp. 3
In the eye of the beholderp. 4
Tools for color imagingp. 5
Color image acquisition and displayp. 5
Image quality and image processingp. 6
The International System of Units (SI)p. 6
General bibliography and guide to the literaturesp. 8
Problemsp. 12
Lightp. 13
What is light?p. 13
Wave trains of finite lengthp. 15
Coherencep. 15
Temporal coherencep. 16
Spatial coherencep. 17
Polarizationp. 20
Representations of polarizationp. 20
Stokes parametersp. 23
The Mueller matrixp. 26
The interference of polarized lightp. 28
Problemsp. 28
Radiometryp. 29
Concepts and definitionsp. 29
Spectral radiometryp. 39
The International Lighting Vocabularyp. 40
Radiance theoremp. 40
Integrating cavitiesp. 42
Blackbody radiationp. 43
Planck's radiation lawp. 44
Blackbody chromaticity loci of narrow-band systemsp. 46
Problemsp. 47
Photometryp. 49
Brightness matching and photometryp. 49
The spectral luminous efficiency functionsp. 52
Photometric quantitiesp. 54
Photometry in imaging applicationsp. 58
Exposure value (EV)p. 59
Guide numberp. 59
Additive system of photographic exposure (APEX)p. 61
Problemsp. 62
Light-matter interactionp. 63
Light, energy, and electromagnetic wavesp. 63
Physical properties of matterp. 64
Light and matterp. 66
Optical properties of matterp. 67
Light wave propagation in mediap. 69
Optical dispersion in matterp. 72
Quantum mechanics and optical dispersionp. 76
Light propagation across material boundariesp. 76
Reflection and refractionp. 77
Scatteringp. 81
Transmission and absorptionp. 83
Diffractionp. 84
Problemsp. 87
Colorimetryp. 89
Colorimetry and its empirical foundationsp. 89
The receptor-level theory of color matchingp. 90
Color matching experimentsp. 93
Transformation between two sets of primariesp. 95
The CIE 1931 Standard Colorimetric Observer (2[degree])p. 97
The CIE 1964 Supplementary Standard Colorimetric Observer (10[degree])p. 102
Calculation of tristimulus valuesp. 104
Some mathematical relations of colorimetric quantitiesp. 104
Cautions on the use of colorimetric datap. 106
Color differences and uniform color spacesp. 107
CIE 1976 UCS diagramp. 109
CIELUV color spacep. 110
CIELAB color spacep. 111
The CIE 1994 color-difference model (CIE94)p. 113
CIE2000 color-difference formula: CIEDE2000p. 113
CIE termsp. 115
The CIE standard light sources and illuminantsp. 116
Illuminating and viewing conditionsp. 119
The vector space formulation of color calculationsp. 121
Applications of colorimetryp. 124
The NTSC color signalsp. 124
Computer graphicsp. 126
Digital color image processingp. 127
Default color space for electronic imaging: sRGBp. 128
Problemsp. 130
Light sourcesp. 132
Natural sourcesp. 132
Sunlight and skylightp. 132
Moonlightp. 135
Starlightp. 136
Artificial sources: lampsp. 137
Incandescent lampsp. 137
Fluorescent lampsp. 139
Electronic flash lampsp. 140
Mercury lamps, sodium lamps, and metal halide lampsp. 141
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)p. 141
Color-rendering indexp. 142
Problemsp. 144
Scene physicsp. 145
Introductionp. 145
General description of light reflectionp. 145
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF)p. 147
Interface reflectionp. 150
Body reflectionp. 158
Empirical surface reflection modelsp. 160
Radiative transfer theory and colorant formulationp. 164
Transparent mediap. 164
Turbid mediap. 167
Causes of colorp. 173
Selective absorptionp. 174
Scatteringp. 175
Interferencep. 175
Dispersionp. 175
Common materialsp. 175
Waterp. 175
Metalsp. 176
Mineralsp. 176
Ceramics and cementsp. 176
Glassp. 178
Polymersp. 178
Plantsp. 179
Animalsp. 180
Humansp. 181
Pigments and dyesp. 185
Paintsp. 186
Paperp. 187
Printing inksp. 188
Statistics of natural scenesp. 190
Colors tend to integrate to grayp. 190
Log luminance range is normally distributedp. 191
Log radiances tend to be normally distributedp. 191
Color variations span a low-diemsional spacep. 191
Power spectra tend to fall off as (1/f)[superscript n]p. 191
Problemsp. 192
Optical image formationp. 193
Geometrical and physical opticsp. 193
The basis of geometrical opticsp. 194
Projective geometryp. 196
The geometrical theory of optical imagingp. 199
Conventions and terminology in optical imagingp. 204
Refraction at a spherical surfacep. 206
On-axis imaging by a spherical surfacep. 209
Off-axis imaging by a spherical surfacep. 211
Matrix method for paraxial ray tracingp. 211
Matrix description of Gaussian optical imaging systemsp. 219
Generalized ray tracingp. 221
Physical opticsp. 222
Scalar and vector theories of diffractionp. 223
The field impulse response of an imaging systemp. 226
The optical transfer function (OTF)p. 229
Problemsp. 231
Lens aberrations and image irradiancep. 234
Introductionp. 234
Radiometry of imagingp. 235
On-axis image irradiancesp. 237
Off-axis image irradiancesp. 238
General image irradiancesp. 238
Light distribution due to lens aberrationsp. 239
Monochromatic aberrationsp. 239
Depth of fieldp. 252
Sine conditionp. 256
Chromatic aberrationp. 257
Optical blur introduced by the camerap. 258
The real lensp. 258
The diaphragmp. 260
The shutterp. 260
Effects of object motionp. 263
Camera flarep. 267
Problemsp. 269
Eye opticsp. 271
Anatomy of the eyep. 271
Reduced eye and schematic eyesp. 274
Conversion between retinal distance and visual anglep. 278
Retinal illuminancep. 279
Depth of focus and depth of fieldp. 279
Focus error due to accommodationp. 280
Pupil sizep. 282
Stiles-Crawford effectp. 282
Visual acuityp. 283
Measurements and empirical formulas of the eye MTFp. 284
Method of eye MTF calculation by van Meeterenp. 286
Problemsp. 288
From retina to brainp. 289
The human visual systemp. 290
The concepts of receptive field and channelp. 292
Parallel pathways and functional segregationp. 294
The retinap. 294
Photoreceptors: rods and conesp. 297
Horizontal cellsp. 305
Bipolar cellsp. 305
Amacrine cellsp. 307
Ganglion cellsp. 307
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)p. 309
Color-opponent encodingp. 310
Visual areas in the human brainp. 312
Primary visual cortexp. 313
Other cortical areasp. 316
Visual perception and the parallel neural pathwaysp. 317
Problemsp. 319
Visual psychophysicsp. 321
Psychophysical measurementsp. 322
Measurement scalesp. 322
Psychometric methodsp. 323
Data interpretationp. 324
Visual thresholdsp. 326
Absolute thresholdsp. 327
Contrast thresholdsp. 327
Contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs)p. 329
Photochromatic intervalp. 334
Thresholds of visual blurp. 334
Visual adaptationp. 334
Achromatic adaptationp. 334
Chromatic adaptationp. 335
Eye movements and visual perceptionp. 337
Perception of brightness and lightnessp. 341
Brightness perception of a uniform visual field (ganzfeld)p. 342
Brightness perception of an isolated finite uniform areap. 343
Brightness perception of two adjacent uniform areasp. 345
Brightness and lightness perception depends on the perceived spatial layoutp. 347
Trichromatic and opponent-process theoriesp. 347
Some visual phenomenap. 349
Brilliance as a separate perceptual attributep. 349
Simultaneous perception of illumination and objectsp. 351
Afterimagesp. 351
The Mach bandp. 352
The Chevreul effectp. 353
Hermann-Hering gridsp. 353
The Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet effectp. 354
Simultaneous contrast and successive contrastp. 354
Assimilationp. 355
Subjective (illusory) contoursp. 355
The Bezold-Br&:ucke effectp. 356
The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effectp. 356
The Abney effectp. 356
The McCollough effectp. 357
The Stiles-Crawford effectp. 357
Small field tritanopiap. 357
The oblique effectp. 357
Problemsp. 357
Color order systemsp. 359
Introductionp. 359
The Ostwald systemp. 360
The Ostwald color order systemp. 361
The Ostwald color atlasp. 362
The Munsell systemp. 362
The Munsell color order systemp. 362
The Munsell color atlasp. 363
The NCSp. 365
The NCS color order systemp. 365
The NCS color atlasp. 366
The Optical Society of America (OSA) color systemp. 366
The OSA color order systemp. 366
The OSA color atlasp. 367
Color harmonyp. 367
Problemsp. 368
Color measurementp. 369
Spectral measurementsp. 369
Spectroradiometerp. 369
Spectrophotometerp. 371
Factors to considerp. 371
Gonioreflectometersp. 372
Measurements with colorimetric filtersp. 373
Computation of tristimulus values from spectral datap. 374
Density measurementsp. 374
Reflection density, D[subscript rho] and D[subscript R]p. 376
Transmission densityp. 378
Error analysis in calibration measurementsp. 381
Error estimationp. 381
Propagation of errorsp. 382
Expression of measurement uncertaintyp. 384
Problemsp. 385
Device calibrationp. 387
Colorimetric calibrationp. 388
Input calibrationp. 388
Output calibrationp. 390
Device model versus lookup tablesp. 392
Computational tools for calibrationp. 394
Interpolationp. 395
Tetrahedral interpolationp. 401
Regression and approximationp. 403
Constrained optimizationp. 406
Spatial calibrationp. 410
Resolution calibrationp. 411
Line fitting on a digital imagep. 413
Problemsp. 414
Tone reproductionp. 415
Introductionp. 415
TRCsp. 417
The concept of reference whitep. 419
Experimental studies of tone reproductionp. 420
Best tone reproduction depends on scene contentsp. 422
Best tone reproduction depends on luminance levelsp. 423
Best tone reproduction depends on viewing surroundsp. 423
Best tone reproduction renders good blackp. 424
Tone reproduction criteriap. 425
Reproducing relative luminancep. 426
Reproducing relative brightnessp. 427
Reproducing visual contrastp. 428
Reproducing maximum visible detailsp. 429
Preferred tone reproductionp. 431
Density balance in tone reproductionp. 431
Tone reproduction processesp. 432
Flare correctionp. 437
Gamma correctionp. 438
Problemsp. 440
Color reproductionp. 442
Introductionp. 442
Additive and subtractive color reproductionp. 442
Objectives of color reproductionp. 443
Appearance color reproductionp. 444
Preferred color reproductionp. 444
Psychophysical considerationsp. 446
The effect of the adaptation statep. 446
The effect of viewing surroundsp. 449
The effect of the method of presentationp. 450
Color balancep. 450
Problem formulationsp. 451
Color cuesp. 453
Color balance algorithmsp. 454
Color appearance modelsp. 459
Color appearance attributesp. 460
Descriptions of the stimuli and the visual fieldp. 461
CIECAM97sp. 461
CIECAM02 and revision of CIECAM97sp. 465
Theoretical color gamutp. 468
Color gamut mappingp. 470
Selection of color space and metricsp. 471
Computing the device color gamutp. 472
Image-independent methods for color gamut mappingp. 472
Using more than three color channelsp. 474
Color management systemsp. 474
Problemsp. 476
Color image acquisitionp. 477
General considerations for system design and evaluationp. 477
Considerations for input spectral responsivitiesp. 478
Calibration, linearity, signal shaping, and quantizationp. 479
Dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratiop. 479
Photographic filmsp. 480
The structure of a black-and-white filmp. 480
The latent imagep. 481
Film processingp. 481
Color photographyp. 482
Subtractive color reproduction in photographyp. 483
Color maskingp. 484
Sensitometry and densitometryp. 485
Color images digitized from photographic filmsp. 486
The effective exposure MTF approachp. 487
The nonlinear model approachp. 488
Interimage effectsp. 491
Film calibrationp. 492
Solid-state sensors and CCD camerasp. 494
CCD devicesp. 495
CCD sensor architecturesp. 495
CCD noise characteristicsp. 497
CMOS sensorsp. 502
Exposure control for CCD and CMOS sensorsp. 503
CCD/CMOS camera systemsp. 504
CCD/CMOS camera calibrationsp. 507
Scannersp. 512
Scanner performance and calibrationp. 515
A worked example of 3 x 3 color correction matrixp. 515
Problemsp. 521
Color image displayp. 523
CRT monitorsp. 523
Cathode current as a function of drive voltagep. 525
Conversion of electron motion energy into lightp. 526
CRT phosphors and cathodoluminescencep. 527
CRT tone transfer curvep. 528
CRT colorimetryp. 529
LCDsp. 532
Properties of liquid crystalsp. 532
The structures of LCDs and how they workp. 532
LCD calibrationp. 536
PDPsp. 537
Electroluminescent displaysp. 539
OLED and PLEDp. 539
Printing technologiesp. 540
Offset lithographyp. 541
Letterpressp. 542
Gravurep. 542
Screen printingp. 543
Silver halide photographyp. 543
Electrophotography (xerography)p. 545
Inkjet printingp. 546
Thermal printingp. 547
Half-toningp. 548
Photomechanical half-tone screens and screen anglesp. 548
Screen ruling, addressability, resolution, and gray levelsp. 549
Digital half-toningp. 550
Printer calibrationp. 557
Calibration of RGB printersp. 558
Four-color printingp. 560
Problemsp. 562
Image qualityp. 564
Objective image quality evaluationp. 564
Detector efficiencyp. 565
Spatial frequency analysisp. 565
Image noisep. 567
Subjective image quality evaluationp. 571
Contrastp. 572
Sharpnessp. 573
Graininess and noise perceptionp. 574
Tonal reproductionp. 575
Color reproductionp. 576
Combined effects of different image attributesp. 577
Multi-dimensional modeling of image qualityp. 578
Photographic space samplingp. 579
Factors to be considered in image quality evaluationp. 580
Observer screeningp. 581
Planning of experimentsp. 581
Image fidelity and difference evaluationp. 582
Perceptible color differencesp. 583
Visible difference predictionp. 583
Problemsp. 584
Basic concepts in color image processingp. 585
General considerationsp. 585
Color spaces and signal representationsp. 587
Signal characteristicsp. 588
Noise statisticsp. 590
System constraintsp. 591
Color image segmentationp. 591
Color space for image segmentationp. 592
Comparison of linear and logarithmic spacesp. 593
Method for partitioning the color spacep. 597
The distance metricp. 598
Color gradientp. 600
Color edge detectionp. 601
Derivative of a color imagep. 602
Statistics of noise in a boundary detectorp. 603
Detection of a step boundaryp. 606
Statistics of directional datap. 608
Representation and descriptive measuresp. 608
Model distributions for directional datap. 609
Denoisingp. 611
Extended tablesp. 614
CIE 1931 color matching functions and corresponding chromaticitiesp. 614
CIE 1964 10-degree color matching functionsp. 616
Cone fundamentalsp. 618
Judd's modified V[subscript M]([lambda]) (CIE 1988) and scotopic V'([lambda]) (CIE 1951)p. 619
Standard illuminantsp. 620
CIE daylight vectorsp. 622
Pointer's gamut of real surfacesp. 623
Glossaryp. 625
Referencesp. 635
Indexp. 689
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521843881
ISBN-10: 052184388X
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 716
Published: 11th February 2011
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.7 x 17.4  x 3.8
Weight (kg): 1.45