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Interface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled Systems : Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering - Chris J. Georgopoulos

Interface Fundamentals in Microprocessor-Controlled Systems

Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering

Hardcover

Published: 31st October 1985
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There is nO' dDubt that the mioroprooessor (~p) revDlutiDn will cDntinue intO' the future and many will be required to' specify and integrate mi- crDprDceSSDrs intO' prDducts Dr systems in their Dwn disciplines. There- fDre, well-designed flexible interfaoes will be required to' ensure CDm- patibility with Dther equipments and to' extend design DptiDns. AlthDugh there are several bDDks Dn micrDcDmputers and micrDprDcessDrs, Dnly few Df thDse devDte but a small part Dn the impDrtant aspects Df interfaces. It was with this in mind that the present bDDk was written as a selfcDn- tained vDlume to' be part Df the mDre general series : Mioroprooessors- Based Systems Engineering. It fills an existing gap in technDIDgy, as in- terfaces are the last items to' be seriDusly cDnsidered in the race Df new technDIDgy, and it deals with the systematic study Df micrDprDcessDr interfaces and their applicatiDns in many diversified fields. This bDDk is aimed at engineers in industry and engineering stu- dents whO' need to' learn hDW to' interface micrDprDcessDrs, and hence mi- crDcDmputers and Dther related equipments, to' external digital Dr analDg devices. It is suitable fDr use as a textbDDk Dr fDr supplementary read- ing, either in an applied undergraduate CDurse in electrical engineering Dr in the last year Df three-year-curriculum technical cDlleges.

`...this is a book which provides a useful addition to the library of those working in this area. The information has been thoroughly researched and is clearly written.' Microprocessors and Microsystems, 10:5 (1986)

1 Microprocessor Basic Structures and Their Needs for Special Interfaces.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Some Useful Definitions.- 1.2.1 Definitions Related to Computers and Other Classes of Machines.- 1.2.2 Interface Definitions.- 1.3 Microprocessor Architectures.- 1.3.1 Basic ?P Architecture.- 1.3.2 The Evolution of Four Generations of ?Ps.- 1.3.3 4-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.4 8-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.5 16-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.3.6 32-Bit Microprocessors.- 1.4 Microprocessor Interface Requirements.- 1.4.1 The Importance of Interfacing.- 1.4.2 Interfaces in an Operating System With ?P.- 1.4.3 MC68020 Bus Interface.- 2 ?P- Logic Families Interfaces.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Basic Logic Families and Their Interface Capabilities.- 2.2.1 Interface Devices from TTL Logic Families.- 2.2.2 Interface Devices from ECL Logic Families.- 2.2.3 Interface Devices from NMOS and PMOS Families.- 2.2.4 Interface Devices from CMOS Logic Families.- 2.2.5 The ISO-CMOS Technology.- 2.3 Comparison of Characteristics and Capabilities of Key Logic Families as They May Apply to Microprocessor Interfacing.- 2.3.1 A Rule of Thumb.- 2.3.2 Power Consumption and Speed Comparisons.- 2.3.3 Noise Immunity Comparisons.- 2.4. Interface Considerations When Mixing Families.- 2.4.1 ECL and TTL Compatibility.- 2.4.2 Bipolar and CMOS Compatibility.- 2.4.3 CMOS to CMOS and Other Logic Families Interfacing.- 2.5 Design and Applications Examples.- 2.5.1 D- Type Flip-Flop as a ?P-Output Device.- 2.5.2 Emulating Complex MOS Chips with Shottky TTL ICs.- 3 ?P- Memory Interfaces.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Brief Review of Main Memory Types.- 3.3 Interface Requirements.- 3.3.1 Timing Requirements for Interface Between RAMs and ?Ps.- 3.3.2 Interfacing Fundamentals for Direct Memory Access (DMA).- 3.4 CMOS Memory System Interface Designs.- 3.4.1 System Timing Factors.- 3.4.2 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.4.3 HM-6100 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.4.4 80C48 CMOS Memory Interface.- 3.5 Interfacing Bubble Memories to ?P- Based Systems.- 3.5.1 1-Mbit Bubble Memory to ?P Interface.- 3.5.2 High Performance Interface Circuitry.- 4 ?P-Timing and Synchronization Interfaces.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Fundamentals of IC Timing Circuits.- 4.2.1 Monolithic Timers.- 4.2.2 Adapted Timing Diagram Conventions.- 4.2.3 Clock Skewing Problems.- 4.3 Real-Time Clock Hardware and Software.- 4.3.1 Simple Version of Real-Time Clock.- 4.3.2 The MC146818 CMOS Real-Time Clock.- 4.4 Programmable Time Interface Modules.- 4.4.1 Programmable Timer Module With Integrated Hardware and Software Capabilities.- 4.4.2 Universal Clock Generator-Clock Stretching.- 5 ?P-Peripheral Chips Interfaces.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Peripheral Processors.- 5.2.1 Host MPU Architecture.- 5.2.2 Multiprocessor Interfaces (MPIF).- 5.2.3 Peripheral Addressing in ?P Systems.- 5.2.4 FIFO Input/Output Device.- 5.2.5 The SCSI Peripheral Interface Standard.- 5.3 IC Peripheral Chips.- 5.3.1 Support Chips.- 5.3.2 Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) Chip.- 5.3.3 A Universal Peripheral Controller.- 5.4 Design Examples and Applications.- 5.4.1 ?P-Based Interface for Current Loop Devices.- 5.4.2 ?P-Interface in Portable Systems.- 5.4.3 Interfacing a 6800-Family Peripheral to MC68000 CPU.- 6 ?P Interfaces in Instrumentation.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Review of Some Basics on Measurements.- 6.2.1 Terms in RMS AC Measurements.- 6.2.2 Error Sources in ?P- Based Calculations.- 6.2.3 IC Instrumentation Amplifiers.- 6.3 The IEEE-488 Instruments Bus.- 6.3.1 Speed Limitations Imposed by the IEEE-STD-488 Specification.- 6.3.2 Typical Handshake Times of Instruments.- 6.3.3 Example of Interface of a Voice-Response System to IEEE-488.- 6.4 ?P Interfaces in Music, Sound and Talking Instruments.- 6.4.1 Simple Sound-Generator ?P Interface.- 6.4.2 Polyphonic Sound-Generator Chip- ?P Interface.- 6.4.3 Interfacing of ?P With a Talking Chip.- 6.5 ?P- Controlled Measurements Stations.- 6.5.1 A Representative System.- 6.5.2 ?P Interfacing Within the System.- 6.5.3 ?P Functions and Sequences.- 7 ?P Interfaces in Communications Systems.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Review of Some Basic Communications Components.- 7.2.1 Modem Fundamentals for Data Transmission.- 7.2.2 Dedicated and Other Telecommunications Chips.- 7.2.3 BORSCHT and SLIC Functions in Telephone Systems.- 7.3 ?P Interfaces in Connection to Communications Standards.- 7.3.1 Some Representative Communications Standards.- 7.3.2 Data Communication Protocols and the IEEE-802 Standard.- 7.3.3 Simplification of 1553-Bus Interface.- 7.4 Design and Applications Examples of Communication Systems with ?P-Interfaces.- 7.4.1 Interfaces in ?P-Based Modems.- 7.4.2 Interfacing ?Ps With Analog Multiplexers.- 7.4.3 Interfacing a Dedicated Multiplier to a ?P.- 8 ?P Interfaces in Automated Offices.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 LAN and PABX Interfaces.- 8.2.1. Interconnection Media in the Office Environment.- 8.2.2 Local Area Network Architectures.- 8.2.3 ?P Interfaces in a LAN Using the Ethernet (LANCE) Controller Chip.- 8.2.4 ?P Interfaces in a PABX.- 8.3 Workstations and ?P Interfaces.- 8.3.1 Workstation Features.- 8.3.2 Architecture of the 925 Family of Office Workstations Based on Motorola 68000 ?Ps.- 8.3.3 Designing a Workstation System and Its Interfaces With the NS16000 or NS32000 Families.- 8.4 Man-Machine Interfaces.- 8.4.1 Touch Display Interface.- 8.4.2 Keypad Interface.- 8.4.3 Interfaces in Speech Recognition Systems.- 8.5 Peripheral and Terminal Interfaces.- 8.5.1 TTY to ?P- Hardware Interface.- 8.5.2 Interfaces in Magnetic Peripheral Integration.- 8.5.3 ?P-Based Infrared Communication Terminals in Automated Office.- 9 ?P Interfaces in Data Acquisition Systems.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Basic Building Blocks of a Data Acquisition System.- 9.2.1 A Data Acquisition System in Block Diagram Form.- 9.2.2 Analog-to-Digital Converters Fundamental Concepts.- 9.2.3 Digital-to-Analog Converters Fundamental Concepts and Basic Parameters.- 9.2.4 Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers.- 9.3 The Interface Block and Its Components.- 9.3.1 Basic Design Problems.- 9.3.2 Converter Selection Problems and Tradeoffs.- 9.3.3 Examples of DAC - Microprocessor Interfacing.- 9.3.4 Examples of ADC - Microprocessor Interfacing.- 9.4 Design Examples of Special Interfaces.- 9.4.1 ADC-to-DMA Interface.- 9.4.2 ?P Interfacing to a 10-Bit Plus Sign ADC.- 9.4.3 DAC/UART Interface Circuitry for Serial-Data Processing.- Charter 10 ?P Interfaces in Automated Factory Environments.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Interfacing with the Analog World in a Factory.- 10.2.1 Communicating With the Real World.- 10.2.2 Input Interfaces and Isolation from the Noisy Environment.- 10.2.3 ?P Interfaced 12-Bit D/A Converter.- 10.3 Microprocessor Interfaces in Industrial Robots.- 10.3.1 Robot Control Hardware Structure.- 10.3.2 User Interface in a Mobile Robotic Parts Delivery System.- 10.3.3 Remote Control of a Robot or Cluster of Robots via Two-Way Infrared Links.- 10.4 Other ?P-Interface Examples for the Factory Environment.- 10.4.1 Embedded ?P Applications.- 10.4.2 Interfacing Digital-to-Synchro Converters.- 10.4.3 Interface in Control of a Stepper-Motor Driven Robot.- 11 ?P Interfaces in Distributed Process Control.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Elements and Structures of Distributed Systems.- 11.2.1 Elements of Distribuded Systems Environment.- 11.2.2 Distributed Systems Information Structures.- 11.2.3 General Interfacing Techniques for Distributed Data Systems.- 11.3 Interfaces in Remote Job Sites.- 11.3.1 Remote I/O Interface Fundamentals.- 11.3.2 Serial Addressable Multiplexing (SAMUX).- 11.3.3 Remote Interface Adapters (RIA).- 11.4 Bus Interfaces in Distributed Systems.- 11.4.1 The STD BUS for 8-Bit Microprocessors.- 11.4.2 The MULTIBUS System Bus.- 11.4.3 The VME Bus.- 12 ?P Interfaces in Energy Management, Heating and Motor Control Systems.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 liP Interfaces in Power Plants.- 12.2.1 Interfaces in Energy Production Monitoring.- 12.2.2 Interfaces in Power Distribution Management Systems.- 12.2.3 Communications Interfaces in Power Distribution Systems.- 12.2.4 Interfaces in Solar Power Generation Control.- 12.3 ?P Interfaces in Motor Controls.- 12.3.1 Simple ?P Interface for Relay Control.- 12.3.2 Timers/?P Interface in Concurrent Driving of Three Stepping Motors.- 12.3.3 Multiprocessor System Interface in Motor RPM control.- 12.4 ?P Interfaces in Heating Control.- 12.4.1 Interfaces in Boiler Monitoring.- 12.4.2 Interfaces in Heating of Multipurpose Buildings.- 13 ?P Interfaces in Automotive Electronics.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Electronic Interfaces in Automobile Engine Control Mechanisms.- 13.2.1 Engine Control Concepts.- 13.2.2 Interfaces for the Electronic Ignition System.- 13.2.3 Interfaces for the Fuel Injection System.- 13.2.4 ?P Control and Interfaces for Diesel Engines.- 13.3 Electronic Interfaces in other Automotive Systems.- 13.3.1 Displaying of Driving Information via ?P Interface.- 13.3.2 Multiplex Bus Control and Interface.- 14 ?P Interfaces in Medical Applications.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Exploring Microprocessor Applications in Medicine.- 14.2.1 ?P- Based Internal Human Conditioning System.- 14.2.2 ?Ps as Rehabilitation Tools.- 14.2.3 ?Ps in Home Health Care.- 14.3 Interfaces in Patient Information and Monitoring Center.- 14.3.1 Multiprocessor Architecture and Interfaces.- 14.3.2 Communication Interfaces Between Instruments.- 14.4 Interfaces in Electrocardiography (ECG).- 14.4.1 ?P Interfaces in Basic Portable ECG Instruments.- 14.4.2 ?P Interfaces in Advanced Portable ECG Instruments With Self-Testing and Diagnostic Capabilities.- 14.4.3 ?P Interfaces in the HP Model 78660A Defibrillator-Monitor.- 15 Interfaces for ?P-Controlled Fiber Optic Systems.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 ?P Interfaces in Simple Fiber Optic Links and Instrumentation.- 15.2.1 Optoelectronic Interfaces in Typical FO Digital Links.- 15.2.2 Interfaces in a FO Fail-Safe Monitor System.- 15.2.3 ?P Interfaces in FO Temperature Instrument.- 15.3 ?P Interfaces in Teledistribution Fiber Optic Systems.- 15.3.1 FO Multiplexer Mixing Analog and Digital Signals.- 15.3.2 TDM Multiplexing in ?P-Controlled FO Link.- 15.3.3 FO Distributed Process Control System With ?P-Interface Units.- 15.4 ?P Interfaces in Fiber Optic Local Area Networks.- 15.4.1 FO Interfaces in the Light of LAN Standards.- 15.4.2 A Fiber Optic LAN Suitable for Offices and Factories.- 16 Interfaces in ?P- Based Security and Alarm Systems.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 General Approaches to Security Systems Interfaces.- 16.2.1 Separation of Security Functions for Proper Interfacing.- 16.2.2 Sophistication and Vulnerability of Integrated Security Systems.- 16.3 Data-Encryption Interfaces in Communication Systems.- 16.3.1 The Data Encryption Standard.- 16.3.2 Data Encryption Chips.- 16.3.3 Interfaces in Data Encryption With 16-Bit Microprocessor.- 16.4 ?P- Based Fire Detection and Security Systems Using Infrared Techniques.- 16.4.1 ?P Interfaces in Automatic Fire Detection.- 16.4.2 ?P Interfaces in Burglaralarm and Intrusion Systems.- 17 ?P- Based ATE Systems Interfaces.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 The Evolution of ?P- Controlled Automatic Test Equipment.- 17.2.1 The Role of Automatic Test Equipment.- 17.2.2 Basic Distributed ATE Systems.- 17.2.3 Distant ATE System.- 17.3 Automatic Testing and the IEEE-STD-488 Interface.- 17.3.1 Controller Interfaces.- 17.3.2 Microprocessors and IEEE-488 Interfaces.- 17.4 Design and Applications Examples.- 17.4.1 Design for Testability for ?P-Based Boards.- 17.4.2 I/O Processor Control Interfaces for IEEE Test Bus.- 17.4.3 Linking ATE via Local- Area Network.- 18 VLSI Technology Impact on ?P Interfaces.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Changes in Design Philosophies at the Circuit Level.- 18.2.1 SSI/MSI TTL Glue Parts and the Trend Toward LSI/VLSI.- 18.2.2 The Current Mode Logic Masterlice Family.- 18.2.3 Differences Due to Classical Switching Theory When Using VLSI Circuitry.- 18.3 Changes in Design Philosophies at the Circuit Level.- 18.3.1 Memory-intensive Microsystem Hardware.- 18.3.2 VLSI-Based I/O Formatter.- 18.3.3 Microfunctions, Buses, and Distributed Processes.- 18.3.4 Control Functions and Interfacing Rules.- 18.4 Simplified ?P Interfaces for Controllers Under the VLSI Influence.- 18.4.1 The VLSI Data Communication Controllers.- 18.4.2 VLSI Memory Access Controllers Support 32-Bit Processors.- 18.4.3 VLSI Disk-Controller Chip Improves Winchester Interface.- Appendix Abbreviations.

ISBN: 9789027721273
ISBN-10: 9027721270
Series: Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 364
Published: 31st October 1985
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.4 x 17.0  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.59