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Interaction Ritual Chains : Princeton Studies in Cultural Sociology - Randall Collins

Interaction Ritual Chains

Princeton Studies in Cultural Sociology

Paperback

Published: 5th July 2005
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Sex, smoking, and social stratification are three very different social phenomena. And yet, argues sociologist Randall Collins, they and much else in our social lives are driven by a common force: interaction rituals. "Interaction Ritual Chains" is a major work of sociological theory that attempts to develop a "radical microsociology." It proposes that successful rituals create symbols of group membership and pump up individuals with emotional energy, while failed rituals drain emotional energy. Each person flows from situation to situation, drawn to those interactions where their cultural capital gives them the best emotional energy payoff. Thinking, too, can be explained by the internalization of conversations within the flow of situations; individual selves are thoroughly and continually social, constructed from the outside in.

The first half of "Interaction Ritual Chains" is based on the classic analyses of Durkheim, Mead, and Goffman and draws on micro-sociological research on conversation, bodily rhythms, emotions, and intellectual creativity. The second half discusses how such activities as sex, smoking, and social stratification are shaped by interaction ritual chains. For example, the book addresses the emotional and symbolic nature of sexual exchanges of all sorts--from hand-holding to masturbation to sexual relationships with prostitutes--while describing the interaction rituals they involve. This book will appeal not only to psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists, but to those in fields as diverse as human sexuality, religious studies, and literary theory.

"Collins again demonstrates why he is considered one of the leading social theorists. This ... work of Collins, in particular, transcends the boundaries of sociology... This is an outstanding work for theoretically oriented professional and advanced students in sociology, social psychology, and psychology."--Choice "Collins argues in this pathbreaking book that ritual--whether in face-to-face conversations or at national presidential funerals--is the key sociological factor that ties group structure and collective beliefs together... Collins plows new ground in several ways. First, he argues that ritual is the central category for all sociological analysis because ritual connects and mediates group structure and beliefs... Second, his work breaks new paths because it proposes a comprehensive theory of ritual grounded in everyday solutions... Finally, Collins bushwhacks new paths when he emphasizes the importance of the emotional energy, what he calls 'collective effervescence,' that is generated by ritual."--Donald B. Kraybill, Christian Century "Collins's book is a major contribution to contemporary sociological theory. His approach--a genuinely sociological microfoundation of sociology--is well chosen and carefully carried out ... Interaction ritual theory helps to enrich our knowledge about a core process of social life. Interaction Ritual Chains is a book offering rich insights into this core process."--Richard Munch, American Journal of Sociology

List of Figuresp. ix
Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Radical Microsociology
The Program of Interaction Ritual Theoryp. 3
Situation rather than Individual as Starting Pointp. 3
Conflicting Terminologiesp. 7
Traditions of Ritual Analysisp. 9
Subcognitive Ritualismp. 9
Functionalist Ritualismp. 13
Goffman's Interaction Ritualp. 16
The Code-Seeking Programp. 25
The Cultural Turnp. 30
Classic Origins of IR Theory in Durkheim's Sociology of Religionp. 32
The Significance of Interaction Ritual for General Sociological Theoryp. 40
The Mutual-Focus / Emotional-Entrainment Modelp. 47
Ritual Ingredients, Processes, and Outcomesp. 47
Formal Rituals and Natural Ritualsp. 49
Failed Rituals, Empty Rituals, Forced Ritualsp. 50
Is Bodily Presence Necessary?p. 53
The Micro-Process of Collective Entrainment in Natural Ritualsp. 65
Conversational Turn-Taking as Rhythmic Entrainmentp. 66
Experimental and Micro-Observational Evidence on Rhythmic Coordination and Emotional Entrainmentp. 75
Joint Attention as Key to Development of Shared Symbolsp. 79
Solidarity Prolonged and Stored in Symbolsp. 81
The Creation of Solidarity Symbols in 9/11p. 88
Rules for Unraveling Symbolsp. 95
Emotional Energy and the Transient Emotionsp. 102
Disruptive and Long-Term Emotions, or Dramatic Emotions and Emotional Energyp. 105
Interaction Ritual as Emotion Transformerp. 107
Stratified Interaction Ritualsp. 111
Power Ritualsp. 112
Status Ritualsp. 115
Effects on Long-Term Emotions: Emotional Energyp. 118
Emotion Contest and Conflict Situationsp. 121
Short-Term or Dramatic Emotionsp. 125
Transformations from Short-Term Emotions into Long-Term EEp. 129
The Stratification of Emotional Energyp. 131
Measuring Emotional Energy and Its Antecedentsp. 133
Interaction Markets and Material Marketsp. 141
Problems of the Rational Cost-Benefit Modelp. 143
The Rationality of Participating in Interaction Ritualsp. 146
The Market for Ritual Solidarityp. 149
Reinvestment of Emotional Energy and Membership Symbolsp. 149
Match-Ups of Symbols and Complementarity of Emotionsp. 151
Emotional Energy as the Common Denominator of Rational Choicep. 158
Material Production Is Motivated by the Need for Resources for Producing IRsp. 160
Emotional Energy Is Generated by Work-Situation IRsp. 163
Material Markets Are Embedded in an Ongoing Flow of IRs Generating Social Capitalp. 165
Altruismp. 168
When Are Individuals Most Materially Self-Interested?p. 170
The Bottom Line: EE-Seeking Constrained by Material Resourcesp. 171
Sociology of Emotions as the Solution to Rational Choice Anomaliesp. 174
The Microsociology of Material Considerationsp. 176
Situational Decisions without Conscious Calculationp. 181
Internalized Symbols and the Social Process of Thinkingp. 183
Methods for Getting Inside, or Back Outsidep. 184
Intellectual Networks and Creative Thinkingp. 190
Non-Intellectual Thinkingp. 196
Anticipated and Reverberated Talkp. 197
Thought Chains and Situational Chainsp. 199
The Metaphor of Dialogue among Parts of the Selfp. 203
Verbal Incantationsp. 205
Speeds of Thoughtp. 211
Internal Ritual and Self-Solidarityp. 218
Applications
A Theory of Sexual Interactionp. 223
Sex as Individual Pleasure-Seekingp. 228
Sex as Interaction Ritualp. 230
Nongenital Sexual Pleasures as Symbolic Targetsp. 238
Sexual Negotiation Scenes rather than Constant Sexual Essencesp. 250
Prestige-Seeking and Public Eroticizationp. 252
Situational Stratificationp. 258
Macro- and Micro-Situational Class, Status, and Powerp. 263
Economic Class as Zelizer Circuitsp. 263
Status Group Boundaries and Categorical Identitiesp. 268
Categorical Deference and Situational Deferencep. 278
D-Power and E-Powerp. 284
Historical Change in Situational Stratificationp. 288
An Imagery for Contemporary Interactionp. 293
Tobacco Ritual and Anti-Ritual: Substance Ingestion as a History of Social Boundariesp. 297
Inadequacies of the Health and Addiction Modelp. 299
Tobacco Rituals: Relaxation / Withdrawal Rituals, Carousing Rituals, Elegance Ritualsp. 305
Ritual Paraphernalia: Social Display and Solitary Cultp. 317
Failures and Successes of Anti-Tobacco Movementsp. 326
Aesthetic Complaints and Struggle over Status Display Standardsp. 327
Anti-Carousing Movementsp. 328
The End of Enclave Exclusion: Respectable Women Join the Carousing Cultp. 329
The Health-Oriented Anti-Smoking Movement of the Late Twentieth Centuryp. 331
The Vulnerability of Situational Rituals and the Mobilization of Anti-Carousing Movementsp. 337
Individualism and Inwardness as Social Productsp. 345
The Social Production of Individualityp. 347
Seven Types of Introversionp. 351
Work-Obsessed Individualsp. 351
Socially Excluded Personsp. 353
Situational Introvertsp. 354
Alienated Introvertsp. 355
Solitary Cultistsp. 356
Intellectual Introvertsp. 357
Neurotic or Hyper-Reflexive Introvertsp. 360
The Micro-History of Introversionp. 362
The Modern Cult of the Individualp. 370
Notesp. 375
Referencesp. 417
Indexp. 435
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691123899
ISBN-10: 0691123896
Series: Princeton Studies in Cultural Sociology
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 464
Published: 5th July 2005
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.7  x 2.9
Weight (kg): 0.68