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Intelligent Control Systems : An Introduction with Examples :  An Introduction with Examples - Katalin M. Hangos

Intelligent Control Systems : An Introduction with Examples

An Introduction with Examples

Hardcover Published: December 2009
ISBN: 9781402001345
Number Of Pages: 306

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Intelligent control is a rapidly developing, complex and challenging field with great practical importance and potential. Because of the rapidly developing and interdisciplinary nature of the subject, there are only a few edited volumes consisting of research papers on intelligent control systems but little is known and published about the fundamentals and the general know-how in designing, implementing and operating intelligent control systems. Intelligent control system emerged from artificial intelligence and computer controlled systems as an interdisciplinary field. Therefore the book summarizes the fundamentals of knowledge representation, reasoning, expert systems and real-time control systems and then discusses the design, implementation verification and operation of real-time expert systems using G2 as an example. Special tools and techniques applied in intelligent control are also described including qualitative modelling, Petri nets and fuzzy controllers. The material is illlustrated with simple examples taken from the field of intelligent process control. Audience: The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate engineering students. In addition, practicing engineers will find it appropriate for self-study.

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Getting Startedp. 1
Intelligent control: what does it mean?p. 2
Components of intelligent control systemsp. 3
Software elementsp. 3
Usersp. 5
The structure and use of the bookp. 6
The structure of the materialp. 6
Prerequisites and potential readersp. 7
Course variantsp. 8
Knowledge Representationp. 11
Data and knowledgep. 12
Data representation and data items in traditional databasesp. 12
Data representation and data items in relational databasesp. 14
Rulesp. 15
Logical operationsp. 15
Syntax and semantics of rulesp. 18
Datalog rule setsp. 19
The dependence graph of datalog rule setsp. 21
Objectsp. 22
Framesp. 26
Semantic netsp. 27
Reasoning and Search in Rule-Based Systemsp. 31
Solving problems by reasoningp. 31
The structure of the knowledge basep. 32
The reasoning algorithmp. 33
Conflict resolutionp. 36
Explanation of the reasoningp. 38
Forward reasoningp. 38
The method of forward reasoningp. 38
A simple case study of forward reasoningp. 41
Backward reasoningp. 44
Solving problems by reductionp. 44
The method of backward reasoningp. 45
A simple case study of backward reasoningp. 48
Bidirectional reasoningp. 51
Search methodsp. 51
The general search algorithmp. 52
Depth-first searchp. 53
Breadth-first searchp. 54
Hill climbing searchp. 55
A * searchp. 56
Verification and Validation of Rule-Basesp. 59
Contradiction freenessp. 60
The notion of contradiction freenessp. 60
Testing contradiction freenessp. 61
The search problem of contradiction freenessp. 63
Completenessp. 64
The notion of completenessp. 64
Testing completenessp. 64
The search problem of completenessp. 65
Further problemsp. 66
Joint contradiction freeness and completenessp. 66
Contradiction freeness and completeness in other types of knowledge basesp. 66
Decomposition of knowledge basesp. 67
Strict decompositionp. 68
Heuristic decompositionp. 68
Tools for Representation and Reasoningp. 69
The Lisp programming languagep. 70
The fundamental data types in Lispp. 70
Expressions and their evaluationp. 72
Some useful Lisp primitivesp. 73
The QUOTE primitivep. 73
Primitives manipulate on listsp. 74
Assignment primitivesp. 76
Arithmetic primitivesp. 76
Predicatesp. 77
Conditional primitivesp. 79
Procedure definitionp. 81
Some simple examples in Lispp. 82
Logical functionsp. 82
Calculating sumsp. 83
Polynomial valuep. 84
The Prolog programming languagep. 84
The elements of Prolog programsp. 85
Factsp. 85
Rulesp. 87
Questionsp. 87
The Prolog programp. 88
The declarative and procedural views of a Prolog programp. 89
More about listsp. 89
The execution of Prolog programsp. 90
How questions workp. 90
Unificationp. 92
Backtrackingp. 93
Tracing Prolog executionp. 94
The search strategyp. 95
Recursionp. 96
Built-in predicatesp. 96
Input-output predicatesp. 97
Dynamic database handling predicatesp. 97
Arithmetic predicatesp. 98
Expression-handling predicatesp. 98
Control predicatesp. 99
Some simple examples in Prologp. 99
Logical functionsp. 99
Calculation of sumsp. 100
Path finding in a graphp. 101
Expert system shellsp. 103
Components of an expert system shellp. 104
Basic functions and services in an expert system shellp. 105
Real-Time Expert Systemsp. 109
The architecture of real-time expert systemsp. 110
The real-time subsystemp. 111
The intelligent subsystemp. 113
Synchronization and communication between real-time and intelligent subsystemsp. 114
Synchronization and communication primitivesp. 114
Priority handling and time-outp. 115
Data exchange between the real-time and the intelligent subsystemsp. 116
Loose data exchangep. 117
The blackboard architecturep. 119
Software engineering of real-time expert systemsp. 121
The software lifecycle of real-time expert systemsp. 122
Special steps and toolsp. 125
Qualitative Reasoningp. 127
Sign and interval calculusp. 128
Sign algebrap. 129
Interval algebrasp. 130
Qualitative simulationp. 132
Constraint type qualitative differential equationsp. 132
The solution of QDEs: the qualitative simulation algorithmp. 138
Initial data for the simulationp. 138
Steps of the simulation algorithmp. 139
Simulation resultsp. 142
Qualitative physicsp. 145
Confluencesp. 145
The use of confluencesp. 147
Signed directed graph (SDG) modelsp. 148
The structure graph of state-space modelsp. 148
The use of SDG modelsp. 151
Petri Netsp. 153
The Notion of Petri netsp. 154
The basic components of Petri netsp. 154
Introductory examplesp. 154
The formal definition of Petri netsp. 162
The firing of transitionsp. 162
Special cases and extensionsp. 165
Source and sink transitionsp. 165
Self-loopp. 165
Capacity of placesp. 166
Parallelismp. 168
Inhibitor arcsp. 172
Decomposition of Petri netsp. 175
Time in Petri netsp. 176
The state-space of Petri netsp. 177
The use of Petri nets for intelligent controlp. 178
The analysis of Petri netsp. 178
Analysis Problems for Petri Netsp. 179
Safeness and Boundednessp. 179
Conservationp. 179
Livenessp. 180
Reachability and Coverabilityp. 180
Structural propertiesp. 180
Analysis techniquesp. 181
The reachability treep. 181
Analysis with matrix equationsp. 186
Fuzzy Control Systemsp. 191
Introductionp. 191
The notion of fuzzinessp. 191
Fuzzy controllersp. 192
Fuzzy setsp. 192
Definition of fuzzy setsp. 192
Operations on fuzzy setsp. 200
Primitive fuzzy set operationsp. 201
Linguistic modifiersp. 205
Inference on fuzzy setsp. 208
Relation between fuzzy setsp. 209
Implication between fuzzy setsp. 211
Inference on fuzzy setsp. 214
Rule-based fuzzy controllersp. 215
Design of fuzzy controllersp. 216
The input and output signalsp. 216
The selection of universes and membership functionsp. 217
The rule-basep. 219
The rule-base analysisp. 220
The operation of fuzzy controllersp. 223
The preprocessing unitp. 223
The inference enginep. 223
The postprocessing unitp. 225
G2: An Example of a Real-Time Expert Systemp. 227
Knowledge representation in G2p. 228
The organization of the knowledge basep. 230
Objects and object definitionsp. 231
Workspacesp. 232
Variables and parametersp. 233
Connections and relationsp. 234
Rulesp. 235
Proceduresp. 237
Functionsp. 238
Reasoning and simulation in G2p. 239
The real-time inference enginep. 239
The G2 simulatorp. 240
Tools for developing and debugging knowledge basesp. 241
The developers' interfacep. 241
The graphic representationp. 241
G2 grammarp. 242
The interactive text editorp. 242
The interactive icon editorp. 243
Knowledge base handling toolsp. 244
Documenting in the knowledge basep. 245
Tracing and debugging facilitiesp. 246
The access control facilityp. 247
The end-user interfacep. 247
Displaysp. 247
End-user controlsp. 248
Messages, message board and logbookp. 249
External interfacep. 250
Appendicesp. 251
A Brief Overview of Computer Controlled Systemsp. 251
Basic notions in systems and control theoryp. 251
Signals and signal spacesp. 252
Systemsp. 252
State-space models of linear and nonlinear systemsp. 253
State-space models of LTI systemsp. 254
State-space models of nonlinear systemsp. 254
Controllabilityp. 255
Observabilityp. 256
Stabilityp. 257
Common functions of a computer controlled systemp. 258
Primary data processingp. 258
Process monitoring functionsp. 260
Process control functionsp. 260
Functional design requirementsp. 262
Real-time software systemsp. 262
Characteristics of real-time software systemsp. 262
Elements of real-time software systemsp. 264
Tasks in a real-time systemp. 264
Software elements of computer controlled systemsp. 268
Characteristic data structures of computer controlled systemsp. 268
Raw measured data and measured data filesp. 269
Primary processing data filep. 270
Events data filep. 270
Actuator data filep. 271
Typical tasks of computer controlled systemsp. 272
Measurement device handlingp. 272
Primary and secondary processingp. 272
Event handlingp. 272
Controller(s) and actuator handlingp. 273
The Coffee Machinep. 275
System descriptionp. 275
Dynamic model equationsp. 277
Differential (balance) equationsp. 278
System variablesp. 279
Referencesp. 281
Indexp. 289
About the Authorsp. 301
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402001345
ISBN-10: 1402001347
Series: Applied Optimization
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 306
Published: December 2009
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.4