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Integrative Systems Approaches to Natural and Social Dynamics : Systems Science 2000 - Michael Matthies

Integrative Systems Approaches to Natural and Social Dynamics : Systems Science 2000

By: Michael Matthies (Editor), Horst Malchow (Editor), Jurgen Kriz (Editor)

Hardcover ISBN: 9783540412922
Number Of Pages: 593

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At the start of the new millennium, mankind is challenged by a paradox: the more we know about the world the more uncertain we become in understanding and predicting how it works. This book presents an outline of a new basis for Systems Science, and a methodology for its application in complex environmental, economic, social, and technological systems.

General Aspects of Systems Science
The Dynamics of Knowledge and Ignorance: Learning the New Systems Sciencep. 3
Complexity, Simplicity and Knowledgep. 4
The Assumptions Used to Reduce Complexity to Simplicityp. 4
The Modelling Outcomes of Different Assumptionsp. 6
Models and Knowledge: Simple to Complexp. 6
Equilibrium Modelsp. 7
Non-Linear Dynamical Modelsp. 7
Self-Organising Systemsp. 8
Evolutionary Complex Systemsp. 9
The General Structure of Modellingp. 16
Innovation and Design in Complex Systemsp. 18
A Stochastic Dynamics of New Ideasp. 19
Exploring, Generating Knowledge and Hill-Climbingp. 21
Trust, Experience and Chancep. 25
The Law of Excess Diversityp. 26
Conclusionsp. 28
Referencesp. 29
Chaos,Computability,Determinism,and Freedom: A Critical Analysis from a System-Theoretic Point of Viewp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Deterministic Chaos and Its Epistemological Implications: Determinism vs Determinability/Computabilityp. 33
Chaos Research, Quantum Theory, and Freedomp. 38
System-Theoretic Determination Model of Action-Decision-Freedom, Neuronal Realization, and Responsibilityp. 40
Conclusions and Summaryp. 47
Referencesp. 49
The Function of Systems Concepts-From Systems Theory to Systems Sciencep. 51
Formulation of the Problemp. 51
Historical Aspectsp. 52
Priorities of Systems Concepts with Different Authorsp. 55
Criticism of Systems Conceptsp. 56
Some Critical Authorsp. 56
Ida Hoos (1972)p. 56
Robert Lilienfeld (1978)p. 57
Czayka (1974)p. 59
Kappel and Schwarz (1981)p. 60
Klaus Mueller 1996p. 61
Summary of the Aspects ofCriticismp. 65
Evaluation of Criticismsp. 67
Conclusions for Systems Sciencep. 69
References and Further Readingp. 70
Fuzzy Aspects of Systems Sciencep. 73
Introductionp. 73
What is Fuzzy Set Theory?p. 74
Some Applications of Fuzzy Set Theory to Systems Issuesp. 75
Remote Sensingp. 75
Ecological Examplesp. 75
Classification of Environmental Impactsp. 76
Evaluation of Ambiguous Datap. 77
Simplification and Clarificationp. 78
Fuzzy Controlp. 78
Forecastingp. 79
Fuzzy Classification and "Lumping"p. 80
Summaryp. 81
Referencesp. 81
Biological Systems
On the Phenomenon of Bimodality in Aggregation Pattern Dynamicsp. 85
Introductionp. 85
The Reaction-Diffusion Modelp. 86
The Stochastic Modelp. 88
The Combined Action of External and Natural Noisep. 91
Conclusionp. 92
Referencesp. 94
Parameter Estimation in Nonlinear Systems with Dynamic Noisep. 95
Introductionp. 95
Epidemic Modelsp. 96
SI-Model with Demographic Stochasticityp. 96
Analytic Solution for the SI Casep. 97
Empirical Likelihoodp. 99
A First More Complex Test Casep. 100
Summary and Prospectsp. 100
Referencesp. 101
Spatial Pattern Formation in a Simple Model of Consumer-Resource Systemp. 103
Introductionp. 103
The Modelp. 105
Resourcep. 105
Consumersp. 105
Turbulent Mixingp. 106
Resultsp. 106
General Aspects of the Model Behaviorp. 106
Influence of the Parametersp. 107
Discussionp. 108
Referencesp. 109
Scaling Laws for the Prey-Predator Interaction Ratesp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Basic Physical Model for Predating Processesp. 112
Scaling Relations from Hydrodynamic Theoryp. 113
Scaling Relations from Kinematics and Biomechanicsp. 114
Scaling Relations from Kinetic Energy Considerationp. 115
Conclusionp. 117
Referencesp. 117
Active Motion in Systems with Energy Supplyp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Model of Driven Brownian Dynamicsp. 121
Equations of Motion and Energy Balancep. 121
Non-Linear Friction Functions and Free Motionp. 123
Stationary Solutions for the Distribution Functionp. 125
One-Dimensional Driven Dynamics Including Forcesp. 127
Motion in Linear and Ratchet-Like Potentialsp. 127
The Role of Interactions: Model of Dissipative Toda Chainsp. 131
Active Brownian Motion in Two-Dimensional Potentialsp. 134
Active Motion with Localized Energy Sourcesp. 134
Motion of "Swarms"p. 137
Discussion and Applicationsp. 139
Referencesp. 140
Reconstruction of Human Liver Parenchyma with Computer Programp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Anatomical Principles of the Liverp. 144
Materials and Methodsp. 144
Centripetal Attractionp. 147
Cell Duplicationp. 147
Resultsp. 150
Discussionp. 150
Conclusionsp. 151
Referencesp. 151
Ecological and Environmental Systems
Recent Developments in System Ecologyp. 155
Introductionp. 155
A Central Tentative Law of Ecosystem Theoriesp. 156
The Relation to Other Theoriesp. 163
Propositions and Ecosystem Propertiesp. 165
Closing Remarksp. 169
Referencesp. 169
GIS-Based Catchment Modelingp. 171
Objectivesp. 171
Area of Investigationp. 172
Determination of the Catchment Areasp. 173
Rainfall-Runoffp. 174
Rainfallp. 174
Model Approachp. 174
Evapotranspirationp. 175
Sewage Water Discharge and Water Removalp. 175
Nitrogen Impactp. 176
Results and Discussionp. 176
Rainfall-Runoffp. 176
Nitrogen Impactp. 178
Conclusion and Outlookp. 179
Referencesp. 180
Hybrid Low Level Petri Nets in Environmental Modeling-Development Platform and Case Studiesp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Requirements of Environmental Modelingp. 181
Concepts of Hybrid Model Developmentp. 182
Aim and Scope of the Developmentp. 182
Methodological Frame Workp. 183
Hybrid Low Level Petri Netsp. 183
Structure and Topologyp. 183
Functional Behaviorp. 185
Switching Conditionsp. 185
Stochastic Time Weighting and Ordinary Differential Equation Systemsp. 185
Development Platformp. 186
Functionalitiesp. 186
Simulationp. 187
Case Study 1: Generic Modeling of Crop Growthp. 188
Modeling of Crop Developmentp. 188
Petri Netp. 191
Structure and Topologyp. 191
Sub-Net: Physiological Stage Modelp. 191
Sub-Net: Crop Growthp. 192
Resultsp. 192
Case Study 2: Meta-Population in Island Biographyp. 194
Meta-Population in Island Biogeographyp. 194
Insular Zoogeographyp. 194
Reproductionp. 194
The Galápagos Archipelago and the Blue-Winged Grasshopperp. 195
Overlay of Map and Petri Netp. 195
Resultsp. 196
Discussionp. 199
Concluding Remarksp. 199
Outlookp. 199
Referencesp. 200
An Empirically Based Approach to Self-Organization in Forest Ecosystemsp. 203
Introductionp. 203
The Understanding of Forests as Self-Organizing Ecosystems in Historical Developmentp. 204
The Forest Ecosystem Types as Statistical Ensembles Corresponding to the Attractors of Natural and Artificial Forestsp. 206
The Identification and Modeling ofForest Ecosystem Types in a Multidimensional Ecological Feature Spacep. 210
Applications to Forest-Ecological Research, Forest Monitoring, Forestry, and Land-Use Planningp. 217
Concluding Remarks: The Need to Use and to Protect Self-Organization Capacities of Forestsp. 219
Referencesp. 220
Regional-Scale Groundwater Quality: Monitoring and Assessment Using Spatially Referenced Environmental Datap. 223
Introductionp. 223
Data and Methodsp. 224
Monitoringp. 224
Nitrogen Balancep. 225
Hydrologyp. 225
Nitrate Contentsp. 226
Resultsp. 227
Discussionp. 231
Monitoringp. 231
Hydrologyp. 231
Nitrogen Balancep. 231
Nitrate Contentsp. 232
Conclusionp. 232
Referencesp. 233
Mathematical Aspects in the Modeling of Urban Environmental Qualityp. 235
Introduction: Do Urban Ecosystems Exist?p. 235
On the Definition ofQualityp. 236
Models for the Evolution ofQualityp. 238
The Simplest Modelp. 238
A More Realistic Assumptionp. 239
Quality is Destroyed by Populationp. 241
Quality has a Pricep. 243
Does Quality Always Mean Good Quality?p. 245
Conclusions and Viewsp. 247
Referencesp. 248
Elaboration of Systems Hydroecological Monitoring of Aral Sea Basinp. 249
Introductionp. 250
History of Problem Solution Attemptsp. 250
Methods-The Work Planp. 252
Results and Discussionp. 256
Conclusionsp. 260
Referencesp. 261
Information Theoretic Measures for the Maturity of Ecosystemsp. 263
Introductionp. 263
Network Description of Ecosystemsp. 264
The Contradiction in the Understanding of the Mature Ecosystem Statep. 265
The New Measure Medium Articulation: Resolution of the Contradictionp. 267
Discussionp. 271
Referencesp. 272
Semianalytical Spatial Ranges and Persistences of Non-Polar Chemical for Reaction-Diffusion Type Dynamicsp. 275
Introductionp. 275
The General Modelp. 276
Definition of the Intensive Parameters R and p. 276
Evaluation of and Rp. 278
Evaluation of and Relative Occupationp. 278
Evaluation of R-General Propertiesp. 279
The Ring Modelp. 279
The Limiting Case of Large Diffusion Ratep. 279
The Limiting Case of Small Diffusion Ratep. 280
The Spherical Modelp. 280
The Limiting Case of Large Diffusion Ratep. 281
The Limiting Case of Small Diffusion Ratep. 281
1D vs 2Dp. 282
An Important Multi-Compartment Examplep. 283
The Mode ofEntryp. 284
Comparison of Cumulative and Non-Cumulative Spatial Measuresp. 284
Summaryp. 285
Referencesp. 285
Technology and Risk Assessment
The Uncertainties of Risk Communication in Knowledge Societiesp. 289
Introductionp. 289
Knowledge Societiesp. 290
Knowledge about Knowledgep. 292
Remarks on the Status of Risk Researchp. 294
Criticism of the Formal Concept of Riskp. 295
On the Difference Between Decision-Makers and Those Affected by Risks of Decisionsp. 296
The Return of Uncertainty in Societyp. 298
Risk of Decision in the Context of Fragile Knowledgep. 300
Referencesp. 302
A Dynamic Account of Rational Decision Making under Uncertainty: The Case of Risk Assessment in Hazardous Technological Systemsp. 305
Introductionp. 305
A Dynamic Approach to Utility-Oriented Decision Making Under Riskp. 306
The Conceptual Frameworkp. 306
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540412922
ISBN-10: 3540412921
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 593
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.06