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Integrated Greenhouse Systems for Mild Climates : Climate Conditions, Design, Construction, Maintenance, Climate Control - Christian von Zabeltitz

Integrated Greenhouse Systems for Mild Climates

Climate Conditions, Design, Construction, Maintenance, Climate Control


Published: 2nd October 2010
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Crop production in greenhouses is a growing industry, especially in mild climates, and is very important for the population as a source of income and clean, fresh food. Greenhouses create optimal climate conditions for crop growth and protect crops from outside pests. At the same time greenhouse production increases water use efficiency and makes integrated production and protection (IPP) possible. This book provides technical instructions for practice (what to do and what not to do) and gives answers to the question: How to produce more clean crops and better quality with less water, less land and less pesticide. Suitable greenhouse constructions and their design, adapted to local climates in subtropical, tropical and arid regions and infrastructure conditions are presented. The necessary climate control measures - light transmittance, ventilation, cooling, heating, and CO2 enrichment - and physical measures for pest control, as well as methods for using solar energy to desalinate salty water are described. The results of theoretical research are transferred into methods for practical use, so that readers are equipped to solve their problems in practice as well as to get stimulation for further research and development.

Introductionp. 1
Climate Conditions and Classificationp. 5
The Climate Elementsp. 5
Solar Radiationp. 5
Temperaturep. 9
Precipitationp. 12
Classification of Climatesp. 17
A. Tropical Humid Zonesp. 17
B. Dry Zonesp. 17
C. Subtropical Zonesp. 19
D. Temperate Zonesp. 21
E. Borealp. 21
F. Polarp. 21
Tropical and Equatorial Zonep. 21
Subtropical Climate: Cp. 23
Dry Climates: Bp. 24
Highlands: Hp. 24
Crop Growth Requirements and Climate Controlp. 29
Climate Requirementsp. 29
Consequences for Greenhouse Constructionp. 30
Measures for Climate Controlp. 30
Tropical Regionsp. 31
Subtropical Regionsp. 33
Arid Regionsp. 42
Design Criteria for Greenhousesp. 45
Greenhouse Typesp. 46
Site Selectionp. 46
General Design Criteriap. 47
Loads for Greenhouse Structuresp. 47
General Requirementsp. 48
Ar: Tropical Wet Climatesp. 48
Aw: Tropical Wet and Dry Climatesp. 49
Cf: Subtropical Humidp. 50
Cs: Subtropical Dry Summer. Mediterraneanp. 51
H: Tropical Highlandsp. 51
B: Dry Climatesp. 52
General Design Requirementsp. 52
A. Structurep. 52
B. Climate Controlp. 56
C. Integrated Plant Production and Protection (IPP)p. 57
Greenhouse Structuresp. 59
Round Arched Tunnel Greenhousesp. 62
Improvements for Tunnel Greenhousesp. 65
Dimensionsp. 66
Pointed Arched Constructionp. 68
Enlarged Tunnel Greenhousep. 69
Multi-Span Greenhousesp. 71
Greenhouses for Tropical Lowlandsp. 76
Greenhouses for Tropical Highlands and Subtropicsp. 85
Greenhouse Constructions for Arid Regionsp. 90
Screen and Shade Housesp. 93
Specific Greenhousesp. 100
Parral Type, Almeriap. 100
Greenhouses for Bananap. 104
Greenhouses for Terracesp. 104
Tent-type Constructionp. 106
Life Cycle Assessment, LCAp. 111
Resultsp. 128
Light Transmittance of Greenhousesp. 137
Cladding Materialp. 145
Materialsp. 145
Ultra Violet Radiation (UV)p. 147
Photosynthetic Active Radiation PAR or Visible Lightp. 147
LongWave Radiation, Far Infrared FIRp. 148
Influence of Dust and Dirtp. 148
Influence of Selective Spectral Transmittancep. 149
Transmittance and Blocking of UV Radiationp. 152
Photoselective Plastic Films and Screensp. 157
Near Infrared (NIR) Blocking and Reflecting Materialsp. 159
Diffuse Lightp. 162
Drop Condensationp. 162
Greenhouse Components, Mounting, Installation and Maintenancep. 169
Foundationp. 169
Connections and Clampsp. 170
How to Do and How Not to Do the Clamp Connectionsp. 171
Fastening and Stretching of the Cladding Materialp. 174
Leaksp. 179
Windbreaksp. 185
Ventilationp. 193
Natural Ventilationp. 193
Air Exchangep. 194
Ventilation Opening Areap. 195
Ventilation Efficiencyp. 199
Types of Natural Ventilation Openingsp. 200
Side Wall Ventilationp. 200
Roof Ventilationp. 201
Side Wall and Roof Ventilationp. 215
Ventilation of Specific Greenhousesp. 220
Forced Ventilationp. 228
Insect Screeningp. 233
Enlargement of Screened Vent Openingsp. 235
Necessary Enlargement of Screened Vent Openingsp. 237
Method of Sase and Christiansen (1990)p. 237
Calculation of AS/Av by using methods of Bailey et al. (2003) and Teitel (2006)p. 238
Climate Conditions and Pest Controlp. 240
Coolingp. 251
Fan and Pad Coolingp. 252
Pad Locationp. 254
Vertical Pad System and Water Circulationp. 254
Horizontal Padsp. 255
Pad Efficiencyp. 255
Pad Material and Thicknessp. 257
Pad Areap. 260
Pad Installation and Maintenancep. 262
Operation of Fan and Pad Systemp. 263
Fansp. 264
Air and Water Flow Ratep. 265
Fog Systemp. 270
Upward Foggingp. 274
Spray Coolingp. 276
Heatingp. 285
Heat Requirementp. 286
Fuel Consumptionp. 288
Heating Systemsp. 290
Geothermal Energy for Greenhouse Heatingp. 297
Solar Heatingp. 301
Crop Water Requirement and Water Use Efficiencyp. 313
Crop Water Requirementp. 313
This Penman-Monteith Method Can Also Be Applied for Greenhouse Conditions, if the Parameters Are Adapted to Greenhouse Climate Conditionsp. 314
Example 1: Almeria (Spain)p. 316
Example 2: Bangkok (Thailand)p. 316
Example 3: Antalya (Turkey) and Bangalore (India)p. 316
Water Use Efficiencyp. 317
Rainwater Collection and Storagep. 321
Calculation of the Storage Volumep. 322
Example 1: Storage Volume for Climate Conditions in Bangalore (India)p. 323
Example 2: Storage Volume for Climate Conditions in Antalya (Turkey)p. 324
Design of Rainwater Storage Basinsp. 324
Desalination of Salty Water and Closed-System Greenhousesp. 329
Solar Desalination Systemsp. 329
Closed-System Greenhousep. 332
CO2 Enrichmentp. 341
Annexesp. 343
p. 343
p. 346
p. 347
Referencesp. 349
Indexp. 361
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ISBN: 9783642145810
ISBN-10: 3642145817
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 363
Published: 2nd October 2010
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.79