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Inorganic Nanowires : Applications, Properties, and Characterization - M. Meyyappan

Inorganic Nanowires

Applications, Properties, and Characterization

Hardcover Published: 10th December 2009
ISBN: 9781420067828
Number Of Pages: 433

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Advances in nanofabrication, characterization tools, and the drive to commercialize nanotechnology products have contributed to the significant increase in research on inorganic nanowires (INWs). Yet few if any books provide the necessary comprehensive and coherent account of this important evolution.

Presenting essential information on both popular and emerging varieties, Inorganic Nanowires: Applications, Properties, and Characterization addresses the growth, characterization, and properties of nanowires. Author Meyyappan is the director and senior scientist at Ames Center for Nanotechnology and a renowned leader in nanoscience and technology, and Sunkara is also a major contributor to nanowire literature. Their cutting-edge work is the basis for much of the current understanding in the area of nanowires, and this book offers an in-depth overview of various types of nanowires, including semiconducting, metallic, and oxide varieties. It also includes extensive coverage of applications that use INWs and those with great potential in electronics, optoelectronics, field emission, thermoelectric devices, and sensors.

This invaluable reference:

  • Traces the evolution of nanotechnology and classifies nanomaterials
  • Describes nanowires and their potential applications to illustrate connectivity and continuity
  • Discusses growth techniques, at both laboratory and commercial scales
  • Evaluates the most important aspects of classical thermodynamics associated with the nucleation and growth of nanowires
  • Details the development of silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and other materials in the form of nanowires used in electronics applications
  • Explores the physical, electronic and other properties of nanowires

The explosion of nanotechnology research activities for various applications is due in large part to the advances in the growth of nanowires. Continued development of novel nanostructured materials is essential to the success of so many economic sectors, ranging from computing and communications to transportation and medicine. This volume discusses how and why nanowires are ideal candidates to replace bulk and thin film materials. It covers the principles behind device operation and then adds a detailed assessment of nanowire fabrication, performance results, and future prospects and challenges, making this book a valuable resource for scientists and engineers in just about any field.

Co-author Meyya Meyyappan will receive the Pioneer Award in Nanotechnology from the IEEE Nanotechnology Council at the IEEE Nano Conference in Portland, Oregon in August, 2011

Prefacep. xi
Authorsp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Referencesp. 5
Historical Perspectivep. 7
Referencesp. 15
Growth Techniquesp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Liquid-Phase Techniquesp. 17
Template-Based Methodsp. 18
Template Preparationp. 18
Deposition Methodsp. 23
Template-Free Methodsp. 32
Hydrothermal Methodp. 32
Sonochemical Methodp. 34
Surfactant-Assisted Growth: Soft Directing Agentsp. 35
Catalyst-Assisted Solution-Based Approachesp. 36
Vapor-Phase Techniquesp. 37
One-Dimensional Growth Conceptsp. 38
Vapor-Liquid-Solid Schemes Using Foreign Metal Clustersp. 38
Vapor-Liquid-Solid Schemes Using Low-Melting Metal Clustersp. 39
Vapor-Liquid-Solid Schemes Using Large Size, Molten Metal Clustersp. 40
Vapor-Solid-Solid Schemep. 40
Oxygen-Assisted Growth (OAG) Schemep. 40
Source Generation and Reactors for Vapor-Phase Synthesis of Nanowiresp. 40
Thermal Evaporationp. 41
Laser Ablationp. 42
Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Depositionp. 44
Chemical and Molecular Beam Epitaxyp. 47
Plasma Arc Discharge-Based Techniquesp. 49
Bulk Production Methodsp. 50
Hot Filament CVD Methodp. 50
Supercritical Fluid Approachp. 52
Direct Oxidation Schemes Using Plasmap. 52
Direct Gas-Phase Reactions Using Plasma Dischargesp. 53
Future Developmentsp. 55
Referencesp. 57
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of Nanowire Growthp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Thermodynamic Considerations for Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growthp. 63
Thermodynamic Considerations of Nucleation from Molten Metal Dropletsp. 63
Gibbs-Thompson Relationshipp. 63
Nucleation from Molten Metal Alloy Dropletp. 65
Nucleation from Various Molten Metal Dropletsp. 66
Thermodynamic Estimation of Supersaturation for Spontaneity of Nucleationp. 70
Rational Choice of Metal for Tip-Led Growth of Nanowires (Avoiding Nucleation)p. 73
Experimental Conditions for Promoting Tip-Led Growth Using Any Molten Metalp. 76
Interfacial Energy and Tip-Led Growthp. 77
Role of Interfacial Energy in the Nanowire Growth Stabilityp. 77
Role of Interfacial Energy in Nanowire Facetingp. 81
Role of Interfacial Energy on the Nanowire Growth Directionp. 85
Kinetic Considerations of Nanowire Growth under VLS Growthp. 87
Kinetics of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Equilibriump. 87
Role of Direct Impingement in Growth Kineticsp. 89
Role of Surface Diffusion in Growth Kineticsp. 91
Direct Impingement and Diffusionp. 94
Role of Surface Diffusion on the Metal Dropletp. 95
Role of Interwire Spacingp. 97
Referencesp. 98
Modeling of Nanowire Growthp. 101
Introductionp. 101
Energetics of Stable Surface Faceting: Silicon Nanowire Examplep. 102
Simulation of Individual Nanowire Growthp. 104
Simulation Methodologyp. 105
Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation Resultsp. 108
Experimental Results on Growth Direction and Surface Facetingp. 112
Modeling of Multiple Nucleation and Growth of One-Dimensional Structuresp. 115
Modeling Nanowire Array Growthp. 117
Referencesp. 121
Semiconducting Nanowiresp. 123
Introductionp. 123
Silicon Nanowiresp. 123
SiCl4/H2 Systemp. 124
Silane Feedstock in VLS Growthp. 134
Other Sourcesp. 135
Oxide-Assisted Growthp. 136
Template-Assisted Synthesisp. 137
Plasma Enhancementp. 138
Doping of SiNWsp. 139
Properties of SiNWsp. 140
Germanium Nanowiresp. 142
Synthesis Using Germanium Powderp. 143
Germane and Related Sourcesp. 146
Catalyst Choicep. 147
III-V Nanowiresp. 148
GaAs Nanowiresp. 149
InAs Nanowiresp. 152
InP Nanowiresp. 152
GaP Nanowiresp. 154
Referencesp. 155
Phase Change Materialsp. 161
Introduction i61
Phase Chang Nanowire Growthp. 162
Properties Relevant to PRAMp. 167
Referencesp. 169
Metallic Nanowiresp. 171
Bismuth Nanowiresp. 171
Silver Nanowiresp. 173
Copper Nanowiresp. 174
Nickel Nanowiresp. 176
Zinc Nanowiresp. 178
Referencesp. 180
Oxide Nanowiresp. 183
Introductionp. 183
Synthesis Methodologiesp. 184
Catalyst-Assisted Synthesisp. 184
Direct Oxidation Schemes Using Low-Melting Metalsp. 190
Direct Oxidation of Molten Metal Clustersp. 190
Direct Chemical/Reactive Vapor Deposition of Low-Melting Metal Oxidesp. 193
Chemical Vapor Transport or Deposition of High-Melting Metal Oxidesp. 196
Plasma and Thermal Oxidation of Foilsp. 202
Directed Growth and Morphological Controlp. 206
Branched Nanowire Structuresp. 206
Networking of Nanowiresp. 208
Nanobeltsp. 209
Tubular Nanostructuresp. 212
High-Melting Metal Oxidesp. 212
Low-Melting Metal Oxidesp. 213
Oxygen Vacancies, Doping, and Phase Transformationp. 214
Oxygen Vacanciesp. 214
Doping and Alloyingp. 216
Phase Transformation of Metal Oxide Nanowiresp. 217
Referencesp. 220
Nitride Nanowiresp. 225
Introductionp. 225
Synthesis of Group III-Nitride Nanowiresp. 225
Catalyst-Assisted Synthesisp. 226
Choice of Precursorsp. 229
Substrates for Epitaxial Array Growthp. 230
Choice of Catalysts and Process Variablesp. 231
Control of Nanowire Growth Directionp. 232
Direct Reaction and Self-Catalysis Schemesp. 233
Control of Growth Directionp. 239
Synthesis of Nanotubesp. 240
Micro/Nanomorphologiesp. 243
III-Nitride Nanobeltsp. 243
Tapered Morphologiesp. 245
Branching of Nanowiresp. 247
Homobranching or "Tree-Like" Structuresp. 247
Heterobranchingp. 248
Diameter Reduction of III-Nitride Nanowiresp. 249
Direction-Dependent Propertiesp. 252
Referencesp. 254
Other Nanowiresp. 257
Antimonidesp. 257
Selenidesp. 260
Zinc Selenidep. 260
Other Selenidesp. 263
Telluridesp. 264
Bismuth Telluridep. 264
Cadmium Telluridep. 265
Other Telluridesp. 265
Sulfidesp. 266
Zinc Sulfidep. 266
Other Sulfidesp. 267
Silicidesp. 269
Referencesp. 269
Applications in Electronicsp. 275
Introductionp. 275
Silicon Nanowire Transistorsp. 278
Vertical Transistorsp. 280
Germanium Nanowire Transistorsp. 284
Zinc Oxide and Other Nanowires in Electronicsp. 286
III-V Transistorsp. 289
Memory Devicesp. 290
Phase-Change Random Access Memoryp. 292
Referencesp. 296
Applications in Optoelectronicsp. 299
Introductionp. 299
Photodetectorsp. 299
Light-Emitting Diodesp. 303
Nanoscale Lasersp. 306
Referencesp. 310
Applications in Sensorsp. 313
Introductionp. 313
Chemical Sensorsp. 314
Sensor Requirements and the Role of Nanomaterialsp. 314
Nanowires in Sensor Fabricationp. 317
Sensing Mechanismsp. 327
Selectivity and Electronic Nosep. 331
Biosensorsp. 337
Nanoelectrode Arraysp. 340
Referencesp. 344
Applications in the Energy Sectorp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Solar Cellsp. 350
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cellsp. 350
Titania Nanowire-Based DSSCsp. 353
ZnO Nanowire-Based DSSCsp. 357
SnO2 NW-Based DSSCsp. 358
Inorganic Nanotubes, Polymers, and Nb2O5 Nanowires for DSSCsp. 358
Quantum Dot Sensitizers for Nanowire-Based Solar Cellsp. 360
Hybrid/Composite Structuresp. 360
Transport and Recombinationp. 363
Direct Absorption PEC Cellsp. 366
p-n Junction Solar Cellsp. 366
PEC Cells for Chemical Conversionp. 368
Electrochromic Devicesp. 373
Li-Ion Batteriesp. 377
Challenges with Anode Materialsp. 378
Challenges Facing Cathode Materialsp. 379
One-Dimensional Materials for Anodesp. 380
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)p. 380
Metal/Metal Oxide Nanowiresp. 381
Nanowires of Silicon and Related Materialsp. 386
Rational Concepts for Nanowire-Based Architecturesp. 387
A Concept of Nanometal Cluster-Decorated Metal Oxide Nanowiresp. 387
Nanowire Arrays on Conducting Substratesp. 389
Miscellaneous Concepts of 3-D Geometriesp. 390
Nanowire-Based Materials for Cathodesp. 391
Referencesp. 393
Other Applicationsp. 399
Field Emission Devicesp. 399
Backgroundp. 399
Work Function (?)p. 400
Field Emission Testingp. 401
Field Emission Characteristics of Nanowire-Based Materialsp. 404
Thermoelectric Devicesp. 414
Referencesp. 416
Indexp. 421
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781420067828
ISBN-10: 1420067826
Series: Nanomaterials and Their Applications
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 433
Published: 10th December 2009
Publisher: CRC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.49  x 2.79
Weight (kg): 0.66
Edition Number: 1