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Inhalation Studies : Foundations and Techniques, Second Edition :  Foundations and Techniques, Second Edition - Robert F. Phalen

Inhalation Studies : Foundations and Techniques, Second Edition

Foundations and Techniques, Second Edition

Hardcover

Published: December 2008
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This significantly updated and expanded new edition presents the scientific foundations of inhalation research essential to the design and conduct of toxicologic studies. It incorporates the major advances that have been made in the field, including recent advances in biology and the rapidly increasing global concerns and studies on particulate air pollution.

The Second Edition was motivated by:

  • new developments in the ultrafine particle health effects and concentrated aerosol research
  • advances in understanding postnatal lung growth and the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles
  • new techniques in toxicity testing
  • the explosion of knowledge in the genetic and molecular realms
  • the introduction of a large number of transgenic animal models
  • updated ethical guidelines for animal testing
  • the emergence of aerosol medicine
  • the growing threat of aerosol-related terrorism
  • increased appreciation of nonpulmonary effects of inhaled substances
  • use of medical scanning techniques to study respiratory tract structure
  • the introduction of new inhalation exposure systems
  • the emergence of aerosol concentrators for use in air pollution studies

Prefacep. iii
Introductionp. xi
Aerosols and Gasesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
The Impact of Aerosolsp. 1
Size Regimesp. 2
Aerosol Terminologyp. 4
Direct Observation of Aerosol Particlesp. 5
Cigarette Smoke: A Familiar Aerosol Systemp. 9
Particle Sizep. 10
Size Distributionsp. 11
Aerosol Propertiesp. 13
Shapep. 13
Densityp. 15
Electrical Chargep. 16
Mechanisms of Chargingp. 16
Attraction of a Charged Particle to a Nearby Conductorp. 17
Charge Distributionsp. 18
Decay Rate of Charges on Particlesp. 18
Light Scatteringp. 19
Hygroscopicityp. 20
Surface Areap. 20
Aerosol Dynamicsp. 21
Particle Motionp. 21
Gravitational and Buoyant Forcesp. 22
The Resistance or Drag Forcep. 22
Terminal Settling Velocitiesp. 23
Slip, or Cunningham's Correctionp. 23
Brownian Motionp. 25
Coagulationp. 26
Particle Size and Toxicityp. 26
Particle Massp. 26
Aerodynamic Propertiesp. 27
Surface Areap. 28
Other Size-Dependent Factorsp. 28
Properties of Gasesp. 29
Movement from Air into Tissuesp. 29
Expressing Concentrationp. 30
Solubilityp. 32
The Respiratory Tractp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Postnatal Developmentp. 34
Compartmentsp. 35
Gross Anatomyp. 37
Overviewp. 37
Nose, Nasopharynx, and Larynxp. 37
Tracheobronchial Treep. 41
Tracheap. 41
Bronchi and Bronchiolesp. 41
Respiratory Bronchiolesp. 45
Parenchyma or Pulmonary Regionp. 47
Subgross Lung Typesp. 47
Cells and Tissuesp. 49
Ciliated Mucosap. 49
The Alveolusp. 49
The Macrophagep. 52
Mucus-Secreting Glandsp. 53
Innervation of the Respiratory Systemp. 54
Bronchial Musculaturep. 54
Ventilationp. 54
Normal Breathingp. 54
Exercisep. 57
Reflex Responses to Inhaled Irritantsp. 58
Deposition of Inhaled Particlesp. 59
Introductionp. 59
Aerosol Deposition Modelsp. 59
Uptake of Inhaled Gasesp. 62
Defensesp. 65
Introductionp. 65
Proximal Airways' Clearance Mechanismsp. 65
Mucociliary Clearancep. 66
Alveolar Clearancep. 66
Establishing and Controlling Exposuresp. 69
Introductionp. 69
Cleaning and Conditioning Throughput Airp. 69
Contaminants in Supply Airp. 69
Gas Cleaningp. 70
Removal of Water Vaporp. 70
Removal of Unwanted Pollutant Gasesp. 71
Removal of Unwanted Particlesp. 72
Air Purification and Conditioning Systemsp. 73
Aerosol Generationp. 78
General Considerationsp. 78
Monodisperse Aerosolsp. 78
Polydisperse Aerosolsp. 81
Droplet Generatorsp. 81
Dry Dust Generatorsp. 83
Gas Generationp. 85
General Considerationsp. 85
Common Techniquesp. 86
Compressed Gas Cylindersp. 86
Syringe Injectorsp. 87
Vaporization and Sublimation Systemsp. 87
Permeation Tubesp. 87
Chemical and Physical Reactionsp. 87
Mixed Aerosols and Gasesp. 88
Principles for Stabilizing the Exposure Atmospherep. 89
Generator Stabilityp. 89
Exposure System Stabilityp. 89
Real-Time Adjustmentsp. 90
Characterizing Exposuresp. 93
Introductionp. 93
The Breathing Zonep. 93
What Should be Measured?p. 94
Particle Parametersp. 94
Gas Parametersp. 94
Environmental Parametersp. 95
Instrumentation for Aerosol Characterizationp. 96
Commentp. 96
Samplingp. 97
Size Analyzersp. 99
Isokinetic Samplingp. 103
Instrumentation for Gas Characterizationp. 103
Eliminating Measurement Interferencesp. 105
General Principlesp. 105
Gas/Vapor Denudersp. 106
Sampling Protocolsp. 107
Methods for Exposing Subjectsp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Basic Types of Exposure Systemsp. 111
Chamber Systemsp. 111
Head-Only Exposure Systemsp. 123
Nose- or Mouth-Only Exposure Systemsp. 126
Lung and Partial Lung Exposure Systemsp. 127
Intratracheal Instillationp. 129
Aging the Atmospherep. 129
Ammonia as a Contaminantp. 130
Determination of the Inhaled Dosep. 132
Ethical Responsibilities of the Investigatorsp. 133
Testing for Toxicityp. 135
Introductionp. 135
Quantitationp. 136
Anatomical Considerationsp. 136
Respiratory Tract Regions and Common Diseasesp. 136
Extrathoracic (Head) Airwaysp. 136
Tracheobronchial Airwaysp. 137
Pulmonary (Gas Exchange) Airwaysp. 138
Morphologic Evaluationsp. 139
Morphometryp. 141
Pulmonary Functionp. 143
Other Endpointsp. 146
Pulmonary Defensep. 146
Lung Developmentp. 147
Behaviorp. 148
Biochemicalp. 150
Normal Lung Biochemistryp. 150
Lung Lavagep. 151
Detoxification, Activationp. 151
Extrapulmonary Responsesp. 152
Controlsp. 152
Batteries of Endpointsp. 153
Experimental Designsp. 155
Introductionp. 155
Basic Statistical Considerationsp. 155
Two Types of Statisticsp. 155
Type 1 and Type 2 Errors in Hypothesis Testingp. 156
Some Tests of Significancep. 157
Group Sizep. 160
The Role of the Statisticianp. 161
Examples of Common Designsp. 162
Acute Exposures/Dose-Response Relationshipsp. 162
Repeated Exposures/Dose Fractionationp. 164
Chronic Exposures/Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Teratogenesisp. 165
Chronic Exposuresp. 165
Carcinogenicityp. 166
Mutagenicityp. 167
Teratogenicityp. 168
Multicomponent Atmospheresp. 169
Facilities and Support Considerationsp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Facilities Componentsp. 174
Laboratory Buildingsp. 174
Exposure Systemsp. 174
Animal Housingp. 176
Necropsyp. 178
Data Handlingp. 179
Analytical Supportp. 180
Toxicity Testingp. 181
Shop Supportp. 182
Conference, Library, and Office Spacep. 184
Facilities Locationp. 185
Animal Modelsp. 187
Introductionp. 187
General Considerationsp. 187
Models of Human Diseasesp. 188
Extrapolation from Laboratory Animals to Humansp. 191
Comparative Dose Distributionp. 195
Dose and Dose Variabilityp. 195
Comparative Minute Ventilation Per Unit Body Massp. 198
Comparative Physiology and Anatomyp. 199
Comparative Pulmonary Functionp. 199
Comparative Airway Anatomyp. 200
Common Laboratory Animal Modelsp. 208
Dogsp. 208
Ferretsp. 208
Nonhuman Primatesp. 211
Horsesp. 211
Bovidsp. 212
Rodentsp. 212
Other Mammalsp. 213
Regulations and Guidelinesp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Guidelines Versus Regulationsp. 218
Protection of Laboratory Personnelp. 218
Protection of Research Subjectsp. 219
Human Subjectsp. 219
Laboratory Animal Subjectsp. 223
Inhalation Toxicity Testing Guidelinesp. 225
Referencesp. 229
Indexp. 259
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780849314001
ISBN-10: 0849314003
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 288
Published: December 2008
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.66
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: New edition