This book has a long history of more than 20 years. The first attempt to write a monograph on information-theoretic approach to thermodynamics was done by one of the authors (RSI) in 1974 when he published, in the preprint form, two volumes of the book "Information Theory and Thermodynamics" concerning classical and quantum information theory,  (220 pp.),  (185 pp.). In spite of the encouraging remarks by some of the readers, the physical part of this book was never written except for the first chapter. Now this material is written completely anew and in much greater extent. A few years earlier, in 1970, second author of the present book, (AK), a doctoral student and collaborator of RSI in Toruli, published in Polish, also as a preprint, his habilitation dissertation "Information-theoretical decision scheme in quantum statistical mechanics"  (96 pp.). This small monograph presented his original results in the physical part of the theory developed in the Torun school. Unfortunately, this preprint was never published in English. The present book contains all these results in a much more modern and developed form.