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Inequality in Latin America : Breaking with History? - David de Ferranti

Inequality in Latin America

Breaking with History?

Paperback

Published: 1st February 2004
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With the exception of Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean has been one of the regions of the world with the greatest inequality. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Breaking with History? explores why the region suffers from such persistent inequality, identifies how it hampers development, and suggests ways to achieve greater equity in the distribution of wealth, incomes and opportunities. The study draws on data from 20 countries based on household surveys covering 3.6 million people, and reviews extensive economic, sociological and political science studies on inequality in Latin America. To address the deep historical roots of inequality in Latin America, and the powerful contemporary economic, political and social mechanisms that sustain it, Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean outlines four broad areas for action by governments and civil society groups to break this destructive pattern: Build more open political and social institutions, that allow the poor and historically subordinate groups to gain a greater share of agency, voice and power in society. Ensure that economic institutions and policies seek greater equity, through sound macroeconomic management and equitable, efficient crisis resolution institutions, that avoid the large regressive redistributions that occur during crises, and that allow for saving in good times to enhance access by the poor to social safety nets in bad times. Increase access by the poor to high-quality public services, especially education, health, water and electricity, as well as access to farmland and the rural services. Protect and enforce the property rights of the urban poor. Reform income transfer programs so that they reach the poorest families.

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Summaryp. 1
Introduction: Motivation and Conceptual Frameworkp. 17
A conceptual frameworkp. 18
The consequences of high inequalityp. 24
The Nature of Inequality in Latin Americap. 33
Different Lives: Inequality in Latin Americap. 35
Some conceptual issuesp. 35
Income inequality and beyondp. 37
Measurement-related issues and data limitationsp. 48
Inequality in Latin America in perspectivep. 53
Looking inside household incomep. 57
Inequality beyond incomep. 66
Conclusionsp. 71
Group-Based Inequalities: The Roles of Race, Ethnicity, and Genderp. 77
Who are the people of Latin America?p. 78
Inequality among individuals during the lifecyclep. 84
Would income inequality decline if returns to human capital were more equal?p. 96
Conclusionsp. 104
The Determinants of Inequality in Latin Americap. 107
Historical Roots of Inequality in Latin Americap. 109
Factor endowments, inequality, and institutionsp. 109
The persistence of inequality: The colonial periodp. 112
The persistence of inequality: Post-independencep. 112
The 20th centuryp. 120
The 21st century and beyondp. 122
State-Society Interactions as Sources of Persistence and Change in Inequalityp. 123
Political and social structures as forces for the reproduction of inequalityp. 125
The potential for equalizing political and social changep. 134
Conclusionsp. 145
Economic Mechanisms for the Persistence of High Inequality in Latin Americap. 149
Asset distributions: Education and landp. 151
Job match qualityp. 157
Remuneration in the labor marketsp. 161
Household formationp. 165
Conclusionsp. 173
Policies for Lower Inequalityp. 175
Policies on Assets and Servicesp. 177
Educationp. 177
Property rights, land, and housingp. 189
Infrastructure services and the distributional impact of privatizationp. 204
Conclusionsp. 215
Policies on Markets and Institutionsp. 217
Markets and inequalityp. 217
Labor market policies and inequalityp. 224
Inequality and macroeconomic crisesp. 227
Conclusionsp. 243
Taxation, Public Expenditures, and Transfersp. 247
Taxes and distributionp. 248
Public social spending and distributionp. 257
Cash transfers and distributionp. 268
Conclusionsp. 280
Statistical Appendixp. 285
Bibliographyp. 351
Boxes
Measuring inequality of opportunities in Brazilp. 20
Social classp. 46
Mobility in Latin America: What little is known?p. 51
Some simple decompositionsp. 63
Social capital and trustp. 66
Disability and distributionp. 70
Distribution of the population of the Americas: An historical evolutionp. 79
Todos Contamos: National census and social inclusionp. 80
The challenge of racial, ethnic, and gender identification and measurementp. 82
What if we do hold "all else constant?"p. 85
Women's other job: Houseworkp. 90
Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methodologyp. 94
Econometric methodologyp. 98
Racial inequality and social spending: Evidence from the United States and Europep. 128
Clientelism and the underprovision of public services in the Dominican Republicp. 131
Are there political and social reasons for the contrast between Latin America and East Asia?p. 133
Political agency and the potential for redistributive strategy in rich countries: Lessons from the OECDp. 135
Increased equity through taxation and social spending in a democratic Chilep. 136
Failed redistributive efforts in a fragmented democracy: Social security reforms in Brazilp. 138
Neopopulism and policies on social funds in Perup. 139
Transition at the sectoral level? Mexico's targeted antipoverty programsp. 141
Popular budgeting in Porto Alegre: Explaining a transition to a new political equilibriump. 142
Local contexts and the transition from clientelism: Ibague versus Pastop. 144
Schematic representation of household income determinationp. 150
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780821356654
ISBN-10: 0821356658
Series: World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 402
Published: 1st February 2004
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 27.53 x 21.49  x 2.16
Weight (kg): 0.89