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Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease - Steven A. Frank

Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease

Paperback

Published: 21st July 2002
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From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine.

The author uses an evolutionary perspective to meld the terms and findings of molecular biology, immunology, pathogen biology, and population dynamics. This multidisciplinary approach offers newcomers a readable introduction while giving specialists an invaluable guide to allied subjects. Every aspect of the immune response is presented in the functional context of parasite recognition and defense--an emphasis that gives structure to a tremendous amount of data and brings into sharp focus the great complexity of immunology. The problems that end each chapter set the challenge for future research, and the text includes extensive discussion of HIV, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, and many other pathogens.

This is the only book that treats in an integrated way all factors affecting variation in infectious disease. It is a superb teaching tool and a rich source of ideas for new and experienced researchers. For molecular biologists, immunologists, and evolutionary biologists, this book provides new insight into infectious agents, immunity, and the evolution of infectious disease.

"[This] is a rich source of ideas for scientists working in immunology and molecular biology as well as evolution... Newcomers are offered a comprehensive introduction to basic questions of immunology, as well as a synthesis that cuts across large areas of biology. Specialists will find detailed discussions of specific infectious agents from a highly original, evolutionary perspective, and inspiration for future research."--Franziska Michor and Martin A. Nowak, Nature "Frank's book, short and clearly written, can be read through with ease, and it will serve as an excellent introduction to infectious disease dynamics for final-year undergraduates and research students, and for those who attempt to bridge the gulf between mathematics and biology. It will be particularly useful as a stimulus for new research... [F]or an integrated and digestible account of the role of antigenic variation in the immunology and evolution of microparasites, this book has few rivals, and is highly recommended."--Charles R. M. Bangham, Trends in Ecology and Evolution "This is the first volume to comprehensively survey the integration of evolution, epidemiology, ecology, genetics, and immunology of pathogen and host population. As such, it is a valuable resource for both students and researchers."--Allison P. Galvani, Quarterly Review of Biology "This book is definitely worth reading. Frank provides a thought-provoking and timely agenda of research questions in evolutionary immunology and parasitology that will undoubtedly stay relevant for many years to come."--Paul Schmid-Hempel, Science "This book should be read by anyone interested in the evolution of infectious disease, as well as by those interested in molecular evolution or in experimental evolution... It will appeal broadly."--J.J. Bull and Dieter Ebert, Evolution "A valuable resource for both students and researchers... This stimulating book makes an important contribution by bridging the gap between immunology and epidemiology."--Alison P. Galvani, Quarterly Review of Biology

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Introductionp. 3
Background
Vertebrate Immunityp. 13
Nonspecific Immunityp. 14
Specific Immunity: Antigens and Epitopesp. 15
B Cells and Antibodiesp. 16
T Cells and MHCp. 19
Summaryp. 20
Benefits of Antigenic Variationp. 22
Extend Length of Infectionp. 23
Infect Hosts with Prior Exposurep. 24
Infect Hosts with Genetically Variable Resistancep. 26
Vary Attachment Charactersp. 26
Antigenic Interferencep. 28
Problems for Future Researchp. 29
Molecular Processes
Specificity and Cross-Reactivityp. 33
Antigens and Antibody Epitopesp. 35
Antibody Paratopesp. 36
Antibody Affinity Maturationp. 38
Natural Antibodies--Low-Affinity Binding to Diverse Antigensp. 39
Affinity versus Specificityp. 40
Cross-Reaction of Polyclonal Antibodies to Divergent Antigensp. 42
T Cell Epitopesp. 44
Every Host Differsp. 52
Problems for Future Researchp. 54
Generative Mechanismsp. 57
Mutation and Hypermutationp. 58
Stochastic Switching between Archival Copiesp. 61
New Variants by Intragenomic Recombinationp. 66
Mixing between Genomesp. 67
Problems for Future Researchp. 68
Individual Interactions
Immunodominance within Hostsp. 73
Antibody Immunodominancep. 74
CTL Immunodominancep. 79
Sequence of Exposure to Antigens: Original Antigenic Sinp. 87
Problems for Future Researchp. 89
Parasite Escape within Hostsp. 93
Natural Selection of Antigenic Variantsp. 94
Pathogen Manipulation of Host Immune Dynamicsp. 97
Sequence of Variants in Active Switching from Archivesp. 98
Ecological Coexistence of Variants within a Hostp. 102
Problems for Future Researchp. 106
Population Consequences
Genetic Variability of Hostsp. 111
Polymorphisms in Specificityp. 112
Polymorphisms in Immune Regulationp. 115
Problems for Future Researchp. 121
Immunological Variability of Hostsp. 124
Immunological Memoryp. 125
Kinds of Parasitesp. 129
Immunodominance of Memoryp. 132
Cross-Reactivity and Interferencep. 135
Distribution of Immune Profiles among Hostsp. 136
Problems for Future Researchp. 144
Genetic Structure of Parasite Populationsp. 148
Kinds of Genetic Structurep. 149
Pattern and Processp. 151
Genome-wide Linkage Disequilibriump. 153
Antigenic Linkage Disequilibriump. 164
Population Structure: Hosts as Islandsp. 166
Problems for Future Researchp. 168
Studying Evolution
Classifications by Antigenicity and Phylogenyp. 175
Immunological Measures of Antigenicityp. 176
Phylogenyp. 178
Hypothetical Relations between Immunology and Phylogenyp. 179
Immunology Matches Phylogeny over Long Genetic Distancesp. 181
Immunology-Phylogeny Mismatch with Radiations into New Hostsp. 181
Short-Term Phylogenetic Diversification Driven by Immunological Selectionp. 183
Discordant Patterns of Phylogeny and Antigenicity Created by Within-Host Immune Pressurep. 183
Problems for Future Researchp. 186
Experimental Evolution: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virusp. 188
Overview of Antigenicity and Structurep. 189
Antibody Escape Mutantsp. 192
Cell Binding and Tropismp. 196
Fitness Consequences of Substitutionsp. 200
Problems for Future Researchp. 202
Experimental Evolution: Influenzap. 205
Overview of Antigenicity and Structurep. 206
Antibody Escape Mutantsp. 214
Cell Binding and Tropismp. 216
Fitness Consequences of Substitutionsp. 218
Experimental Evolution of Other Pathogensp. 224
Problems for Future Researchp. 227
Experimental Evolution: CTL Escapep. 230
Cleavage and Transport of Peptidesp. 231
MHC Bindingp. 232
TCR Bindingp. 237
Functional Consequences of Escapep. 239
Kinetics of Escapep. 240
Problems for Future Researchp. 243
Measuring Selection with Population Samplesp. 246
Kinds of Natural Selectionp. 247
Positive Selection to Avoid Host Recognitionp. 249
Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Substitutionsp. 251
Predicting Evolutionp. 255
Problems for Future Researchp. 260
Recap of Some Interesting Problemsp. 265
Population-Level Explanation for Low Molecular Variabilityp. 265
Molecular-Level Explanation for Population Dynamicsp. 266
Binding Kinetics and the Dynamics of Immunodominancep. 266
Diversity and Regulation of Archival Repertoiresp. 267
Final Notep. 268
Referencesp. 269
Author Indexp. 313
Subject Indexp. 337
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691095950
ISBN-10: 0691095957
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 360
Published: 21st July 2002
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.42 x 16.1  x 2.13
Weight (kg): 0.48