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Human Response to Vibration : International Library of Philosophy and - Neil J. Mansfield

Human Response to Vibration

International Library of Philosophy and

Hardcover Published: 28th October 2004
ISBN: 9780415282390
Number Of Pages: 244

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Through continued collaboration and the sharing of ideas, data, and results, the international community of researchers and practitioners has developed an understanding of many facets of the human response to vibration. At a time when the EU is preparing to adopt a directive on health risks arising from occupational exposure to vibration, Human Response to Vibration offers authoritative guidance on this complex subject. Individual chapters in the book examine issues relating to whole-body vibration, hand-arm vibration, and motion sickness. Vibration measurements and standards are also addressed. This book meets the needs of those requiring knowledge of human response to vibration in order to make practical improvements to the physical working environment. Written with the consultant, practitioner, researcher, and student in mind, the text is designed to be an educational tool, a reference, and a stimulus for new ideas for the next generation of specialists.

Introduction to Vibrationp. 1
Human Response to Vibration in Contextp. 1
Introduction to Wave Theoryp. 1
Simple Wavesp. 2
Adding Wavesp. 2
Displacement, Velocity, and Accelerationp. 3
Resonancep. 4
Representation of Vibration Signalsp. 5
Classification of Vibrationp. 6
Classification of Vibration by Contact Site, Effect, and Frequencyp. 6
Classification of Vibration by Waveformp. 8
Classification of Vibration by Magnitudep. 8
Vibration Axesp. 9
Chapter Summaryp. 10
Whole-Body Vibrationp. 13
Introductionp. 13
Whole-Body Vibration Perceptionp. 13
Mechanisms of Perceptionp. 14
Perception in Seated Posturesp. 15
Perception in Nonseated Posturesp. 16
Frequency Weightingsp. 17
Vibration Perception in Buildingsp. 19
Whole-Body Vibration Comfort and Discomfortp. 21
Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH)p. 21
Vehicle Comfortp. 21
Assessing Vibration Comfortp. 22
Activity Interferencep. 23
Health Effects of Whole-Body Vibrationp. 23
Epidemiological Studiesp. 25
Pathological Studiesp. 27
Protectionp. 28
The "Holistic" Approachp. 30
Seating Dynamicsp. 31
Optimizing Vehicle Seating Comfortp. 31
Conventional Seatsp. 33
Suspension Seatsp. 37
Seat Testingp. 40
Biomechanical Responses to Whole-Body Vibrationp. 41
Transmission of Vibration Through the Bodyp. 42
Mechanical Impedance of the Bodyp. 44
Effect of Subject Variablesp. 45
Effect of Stimulus Variablesp. 46
Biomechanical Models for Human Response to Whole-Body Vibrationp. 47
Lumped-Parameter Modelsp. 48
Physical Modelsp. 50
Chapter Summaryp. 52
Motion Sicknessp. 53
Introductionp. 53
Signs and Symptoms of Motion Sicknessp. 55
The Cause of Motion Sicknessp. 56
Sensory Conflict Theoryp. 56
Types of Sensory Conflictp. 59
Travel Sicknessp. 60
Seasicknessp. 60
Airsicknessp. 63
Sickness Associated with Ground Transportationp. 64
Simulator Sicknessp. 65
Relative Sensitivity to Simulated Motion of Different Frequenciesp. 66
Effect of Frequency of Vertical Oscillation on Sickness Incidencep. 67
Effect of Frequency of Fore-and-Aft Oscillation on Sickness Incidencep. 68
Effect of Frequency of Lateral Oscillation on Sickness Incidencep. 69
Relative Nauseogenicity of Low-Frequency Oscillation in Different Directionsp. 70
Habituation to Motion Sicknessp. 70
Prevention of Motion Sicknessp. 71
Avoidancep. 71
Alternative Therapiesp. 71
Antimotion-Sickness Drugsp. 72
Optimizing the Motion Stimulusp. 74
Avoiding Conflictp. 74
Motion Sickness Desensitization Programsp. 75
Chapter Summaryp. 76
Hand-Transmitted Vibrationp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Hand-Transmitted Vibration Perceptionp. 77
Health Effects of Hand-Transmitted Vibrationp. 79
Vascular Aspects of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndromep. 80
Primary Raynaud's Diseasep. 80
Secondary Raynaud's Diseasep. 81
Vibration-Induced White Finger (VWF)p. 81
Nonvascular Disorders of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndromep. 83
Neurological Disordersp. 84
Bone and Joint Disordersp. 84
Muscular Disordersp. 84
Disorders Remote from the Hand and Armp. 85
Classification and Diagnosis of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndromep. 85
Checklist Methods of Classifying Hand-Arm Vibration Syndromep. 86
Objective Methods for Diagnosing Hand-Arm Vibration Syndromep. 88
Thermal Threshold Testingp. 88
Vibrotactile Threshold Testingp. 89
Rewarming Time Testingp. 89
Finger Systolic Blood Pressure Testingp. 90
Reducing Risks from Hand-Transmitted Vibrationp. 90
Health Monitoringp. 91
Education and Trainingp. 92
Information Flowp. 92
Minimization of Other Ergonomic Risk Factorsp. 93
Quantification and Minimization of Exposurep. 93
Optimization of the Toolp. 93
Optimization of the Jobp. 94
Antivibration Glovesp. 94
Chapter Summaryp. 95
Vibration Measurementp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Measurement Flowp. 98
Human Vibration Metersp. 99
Considerations for Selection of a Human Vibration Meterp. 100
Data-Acquisition Systemsp. 100
Resolution and Samplingp. 101
Aliasingp. 103
Accelerometersp. 104
Piezoresistive Accelerometersp. 104
Piezoelectric Accelerometersp. 105
ICP (Integrated Circuit Piezoelectric) Accelerometersp. 106
Signal Conditioningp. 106
Accelerometer Amplifiersp. 106
Filtersp. 108
Calibration of Human Vibration Measurement Systemsp. 109
Signal Processingp. 110
Frequency Weightingsp. 111
Statistical Measurementsp. 112
Root-Mean-Square (r.m.s.)p. 112
Peak Accelerationp. 114
Crest Factor (CF)p. 114
Vibration Dose Value (VDV)p. 115
Combining Axesp. 115
Calculation of Daily Exposuresp. 116
Acceptable Exposure-Time Thresholdsp. 117
Spectral Analysisp. 118
Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs)p. 118
Power Spectral Densities (PSDs)p. 119
Frequency Response (Transfer) Functionsp. 119
Coherencep. 120
Successful Vibration Measurementp. 122
Step 1: Strategic Planning of Approachp. 122
Step 2: Collation and Calibration of Equipmentp. 123
Step 3: Mounting of Accelerometersp. 123
Step 4: Measurement of the Vibrationp. 128
Step 5: Analysis and Postprocessingp. 129
Case Study 1: Hand-Transmitted Vibration Assessmentp. 130
Case Study 2: Whole-Body Vibration Assessmentp. 134
Chapter Summaryp. 135
Whole-Body Vibration Standardsp. 139
Introductionp. 139
Standardization Bodiesp. 140
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)p. 141
European Committee for Standardization (CEN)p. 143
National Standardization Bodiesp. 143
British Standards Institution (BSI)p. 145
Legal Position of Standardsp. 146
Standards for Whole-Body Vibration Measurement and Assessmentp. 147
BS 6841: Guide to Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Mechanical Vibration and Repeated Shock (1987)p. 147
ISO 2631: Mechanical Vibration and Shock - Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration - Part 1: General Requirements (1997)p. 150
Comparison of BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631 (1997)p. 153
Standards for Determining Vibration Exposures in Specific Vehiclesp. 155
ISO 5008: Agricultural Wheeled Tractors and Field Machinery - Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration of the Operator (2002)p. 155
ISO 10056: Mechanical Vibration - Measurement and Analysis of Whole-Body Vibration to Which Passengers and Crew Are Exposed in Railway Vehicles (2001)p. 157
Standards for Determination of Whole-Body Vibration Emission Values for Mobile Machineryp. 157
European Standard EN 1032: Mechanical Vibration - Testing of Mobile Machinery in Order to Determine the Vibration Emission Value (2003)p. 158
EN 13059: Safety of Industrial Trucks - Test Methods for Measuring Vibration (2002)p. 160
Standards for Testing Vehicle Seats in the Laboratoryp. 160
ISO 10326-1: Mechanical Vibration - Laboratory Method for Evaluating Vehicle Seat Vibration - Part 1: Basic Requirements (1992)p. 162
ISO 10326-2: Mechanical Vibration - Laboratory Method for Evaluating Vehicle Seat Vibration - Part 2: Application to Railway Vehicles (2001)p. 163
ISO 7096: Earthmoving Machinery - Laboratory Evaluation of Operator-Seat Vibration (2000)p. 164
EN 13490: Mechanical Vibration - Industrial Trucks - Laboratory Evaluation and Specification of Operator-Seat Vibration (2001)p. 164
Chapter Summaryp. 166
Hand-Transmitted Vibration Standardsp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Standards for Hand-Transmitted Vibration Measurement and Assessmentp. 169
ISO 5349-1: Mechanical Vibration - Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Hand-Transmitted Vibration - Part 1: General Requirements (2001)p. 170
ISO 5349-2: Mechanical Vibration - Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Hand-Transmitted Vibration - Part 2: Practical Guidance for Measurement at the Workplace (2001)p. 171
BS 6842: British Standards Guide to Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Vibration Transmitted to the Hand (Superseded) (1987)p. 173
ISO 5349: Mechanical Vibration - Guidelines for the Measurement and the Assessment of Human Exposure to Hand-Transmitted Vibration (Superseded) (1986)p. 174
Standards for Determining the Vibration Emission Value of Tools and Hand-Guided Machinesp. 175
EN 1033: Hand-Arm Vibration - Laboratory Measurement of Vibration at the Grip Surface of Hand-Guided Machinery - General (1995)p. 175
ISO 8662: Hand-held Portable Power Tools - Measurements of Vibrations at the Handle - Part 1: General (1988)p. 176
ISO 8662: Hand-held Portable Power Tools - Measurements of Vibrations at the Handle - Part 2: Chipping Hammers and Riveting Hammers (1992)p. 178
ISO 8662: Hand-held Portable Power Tools - Measurements of Vibrations at the Handle - Part 4: Grinders (1994)p. 179
International Standard ISO 8662: Hand-held Portable Power Tools - Measurements of Vibrations at the Handle - Part 6: Impact Drills (1994)p. 181
Standards for Testing the Dynamic Performance of Antivibration Glovesp. 181
ISO 13753: Mechanical Vibration and Shock - Hand-Arm Vibration - Method for Measuring the Vibration Transmissibility of Resilient Materials when Loaded by the Hand-Arm System (1998)p. 182
ISO 10819: Mechanical Vibration and Shock - Hand-Arm Vibration - Method for the Measurement and Evaluation of the Vibration Transmissibility of Gloves at the Palm of the Hand (1996)p. 183
Chapter Summaryp. 185
European Directivesp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Development of European Directivesp. 187
Legal Position of European Directivesp. 188
The Machinery Safety Directive: Directive 98/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States, Relating to Machineryp. 188
Principles of Safety Integrationp. 189
Reporting of Emission Values for Hand-Transmitted Vibrationp. 190
Reporting of Emission Values for Whole-Body Vibrationp. 191
Impact of the Machinery Safety Directive on Occupational Health of Workersp. 191
Reporting of Emission Values for Noise Exposurep. 191
The Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive: Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Minimum Health and Safety Requirements Regarding the Exposure of Workers to the Risks Arising from Physical Agents (Vibration)p. 192
Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive - Section 1: General Provisionsp. 192
Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive - Section 2: Obligation of Employersp. 194
Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive - Section 3: Miscellaneous Provisionsp. 196
Health Surveillancep. 196
Transitional Periodsp. 197
Derogationsp. 197
Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive - Section 4: Final Provisionsp. 198
Review of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directivep. 198
Financial Costsp. 198
Improvements in Product Designp. 199
Are the Methods Correct?p. 199
Are the Exposure Limit Values and Exposure Action Values Correct?p. 200
The Physical Agents (Noise) Directive: Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Minimum Health and Safety Requirements Regarding the Exposure of Workers to the Risks Arising from Physical Agents (Noise)p. 200
Chapter Summaryp. 201
Referencesp. 203
Indexp. 221
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415282390
ISBN-10: 041528239X
Series: International Library of Philosophy and
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 244
Published: 28th October 2004
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.9  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.49
Edition Number: 1