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Human Body Composition : In Vivo Methods, Models, and Assessment - Kenneth J. Ellis

Human Body Composition

In Vivo Methods, Models, and Assessment

By: Kenneth J. Ellis (Editor), Jerry D. Eastman (Editor)

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Published: 30th November 1993
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This book is the compilation of papers presented at the International Symposium on In Vivo Body Composition Studies, held in Houston, Texas, November 10-12, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to report on the state-of-the-art techniques for in vivo body composition measurements and to present the most recent human data on normal body composition and changes during disease. This conference was the third in a series of meetings on body composition studies held in North America, and follows the successful meetings at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1986, and the one in Toronto in 1989. A large number of excellent research papers were offered for consideration at this Conference which demonstrates the rapid growth of the field in the last three years. However, we had to limit the presentations to approximately 90 papers which provided a broad spectrum of the applications and recent interest in the subject. The proceedings of the Brookhaven meeting "In Vivo Body Composition Studies", is published by The Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine, London. The proceedings of the Toronto meeting "In Vivo Body Composition Studies" was published by Plenum Press in its basic life science series. Both these meetings placed more emphasis on technical aspects while the current Houston meeting tried to emphasize more the emerging clinical applications of these techniques. The general sessions used at the Conference for presentations forms the basis of the order of appearance of the papers in this book.

The Companionship of Lean and Fatp. 1
Biological Homogeneity and Precision of Measurement: The Boundary Conditions for Normal Body Compositionp. 15
Determination of Body Fluid Compartments with Multiple Frequency Bioelectric Impedancep. 23
A Comparison of Body Composition Modelsp. 27
In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis for Body Fat: Comparisons by Seven Methodsp. 31
Body Composition in the Elderly from MRI: Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factorsp. 35
Comparison of Proximal and Distal Placements of Electrodes to Assess Human Body Composition by Bioelectrical Impedancep. 39
Relative Sensitivities of DXA and IVNAA for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosisp. 45
Measurement of Regional Body Fat In Vivo in Humans by Simultaneous Detection of Regional Carbon and Oxygen, Using Neutron Inelastic Scattering at Low Radiation Exposurep. 49
Multicomponent Models in Body Composition Research: Opportunities and Pitfallsp. 53
Assessment of Body Fat: A Comparison of Techniquesp. 59
Whole Body Fluid and Electrolyte Assays in "Normal" Volunteersp. 63
Use of Bioimpedance Spectroscopy to Determine Extracellular Fluid, Intracellular Fluid, Total Body Water, and Fat-Free Massp. 67
Fat-Free Mass and Percent Body Fat Assessments by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Densitometry and Total Body Waterp. 71
Measurements of Intra-Abdominal Fat by Ultrasound and Computed Tomography: Predictive Equations in Womenp. 75
Deuterium Exchange in Humans: Effect of Gender, Body Composition and Agep. 79
A Comparison of Different Prediction Equations in Determining Body Composition of Outstanding Female Gymnastsp. 83
Comparison of Body Composition Methods in Obese Individualsp. 85
Bone Mineral in Southwest Native American Womenp. 87
Body Composition of Native American Women Estimated by DXA and Hydrodensitometryp. 89
The Measurement of Total Body Fat by DXA: Comparison with Skinfold Anthropometry, Bioelectrical Impedance and Total body Potassiump. 93
Determination of Anatomical Skeletal Muscle Mass by Whole Body Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 95
Assessment of Regional Body Composition Changes by DXAp. 99
Body Composition Analysis of the Pig by Magnetic Resonance Imagingp. 105
Aqueous and Mineral Fractions of the Fat-Free Body and their Relation to Body Fat Estimates in Men and Women Aged 49-82 Yearsp. 109
DXA Measurements of Fat and Bone Mineral Density in Relation to Depth and Adiposityp. 115
What Does Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) Measure?p. 121
Five-Level Model: Reconstruction of Body Weight at Atomic, Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue-System Levels From Neutron Activation Analysisp. 125
Assessment of Changes in Extracellular Water and Total Body Water Using Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedancep. 129
Noninvasive Methods of Body Composition Analysis in Preterm Infants: - Comparison with Dilution of [actual symbol not reproducible]p. 133
Total Body Nitrogen in Prepubertal Childrenp. 139
Total Body Nitrogen in Idiopathic Short Stature and Chronic Diseases of Childhoodp. 143
Body Composition of Infants: Human Cadaver Studiesp. 147
Accuracy of DXA-Based Body Composition Measurements for Pediatric Studiesp. 153
Body Composition Analysis by DXA Compared to Chemical Analysis of Fat, Lean and Bone Mass in Small Pigletsp. 157
Bone Status and Body Fat of Healthy Newborn Caucasian Infantsp. 161
The Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) in Newborns: The Need for Standardizationp. 165
Evaluation of DXA for the Assessment of Body Composition in Anorexic Femalesp. 169
Bone Mass and Soft Tissue Compartments in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosap. 173
Determination of Total and Regional Adipose Tissue Distribution by MRI in Android Womenp. 177
Total Body Fat and its Distribution during Human Reproduction as Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imagingp. 181
Total Body Water Measurement by Bioelectrical Impedance in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infantp. 185
The Use of Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fluid Volume Changes as a Function of the Menstrual Cyclep. 189
Body Composition Measurements During Pregnancyp. 193
Total Body Protein Status of Males Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virusp. 197
Body Composition Studies in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Effects of Growth Hormone Therapyp. 201
Effect of Refeeding and Exercise in Restoration of Body Protein in Anorexia Nervosap. 207
Body Composition Analysis in Liver Cirrhosis: The Measurement of Body Fat by DXA in Comparison to Skinfold Anthropometry, Bioelectrical Impedance and Total Body Potassiump. 211
Abdominal Fat Assessment in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Hormone Replacement Therapyp. 215
The Effects of Oral Desogestrel and Estradiol Continuous Combined Hormone Replacement Therapy on Serum Lipids and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Womenp. 219
A Four Compartment Model to Determine Body Composition in Liver Cirrhosisp. 221
Consequences of Enteral Nutrition Therapy on Body Composition Changes in Acute Crohn's Diseasep. 225
CT-Determined Body Composition Changes with Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment to Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiencyp. 229
Hormones, Body Composition and Cardiovascular Riskp. 233
Aging Affects Body Composition: Young Versus Elderly Women Pair-Matched by Body Mass Indexp. 245
Body Composition in the Elderly Using Multicompartmental Methodsp. 251
Can We Improve the Diagnostic Value of Bone Mass Measurements by DXA with NAA?p. 255
Body Composition and Bone Mass in Female Adolescents and Elderly Subjects Entering Exercise Programsp. 259
Changes in Body Composition Following a Very Low Calorie Dietp. 263
A Monte Carlo Program for the Determination of the Optimum Back Scatter Geometry When Measuring Mercury and Other Heavy Metals In Vivop. 267
In Vivo X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis with Applications to Platinum, Gold and Mercury in Man - Experiments, Improvements and Patient Measurementsp. 275
Initial Measurements of Platinum Concentration in Head and Neck Tumors Using X-Ray Fluorescencep. 281
An Upgraded [superscript 109]CD K X-Ray Fluorescence Bone PB Measurementp. 285
Characteristics of an Accelerator Based System for In Vivo Aluminium Measurement in Peripheral Bonep. 289
Development and Calibration of an In Vivo Bone Lead Measurement System, and its Application to an Industrially Exposed Populationp. 295
In Vivo Measurements of Lead in Bone Using a [superscript 109]CD 'SPOT' Sourcep. 299
Pilot Studies for In Vivo Bone Aluminum Measurementsp. 303
X-Ray Fluorescence Determination of Gold In Vivop. 307
Further Observations on Lead Mobilization by Cisplatinp. 311
The In Vivo Measurements of Bone Lead Stores by [superscript 109]Cd K X-Ray Fluorescence in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca mulatta)p. 315
Development of an In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis Technique to Measure Bone Aluminiump. 319
A [superscript 238]Pu/Be Facility for In Vivo Cadmium Measurementsp. 323
Determination of Bone Mineral Content in the Heel Bone Using a Gamma Camerap. 325
In Vitro Accuracy and Reproducibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Measurements by DXAp. 329
Effects of Meal and Its Electrolytes on Bioelectrical Impedancep. 331
The Accuracy of Dual Photon Measurements of Soft Tissue Compositionp. 333
A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for In Vivo Determination of Total Body Nitrogen and Chlorinep. 337
Triple-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Determination of the Bone Mineral Content In Vivop. 339
In Vivo Measurements of Total Body Calcium by Chlorine Internal Standardizationp. 341
Application of Computerized Axial Tomography in the Study of Body Composition: Evaluation of Lipid, Water, Protein, and Mineral in Healthy Menp. 343
Recent Upgrade of the IVNA Facility at BNLp. 345
Performance of the BGO Total Body Chlorine Analyzerp. 351
In Vivo Fatty Acid Analysis in Humans and Animals Using Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopyp. 355
The Use of High Frequency Energy Absorption to Measure Limb Musculaturep. 359
Body Composition Studies by Means of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Biomagnetometryp. 363
A Comparison Between Neutron Activation and DXA for the Measurement of Body Fatp. 367
Whole Body Potassium Measurements Independent of Body Sizep. 371
The Effects of Body Position on Bioimpedance Spectroscopyp. 377
Accuracy of Measurements of Total-Body Soft-Tissue Composition by DXA In Vivop. 381
Comparisons Between Hologic, Norland and Lunar Dual-Energy X-Ray Bone Absorptiometersp. 385
Validation of the Near-Infrared Interactance Method for American Indian, Black, Hispanic and White Men 19 to 57 Yearsp. 389
Development of Position/Energy-Sensitive Detectors for Body Composition Measurementsp. 393
Indexp. 399
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306445699
ISBN-10: 0306445697
Series: BASIC LIFE SCIENCES
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 402
Published: 30th November 1993
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.04 x 17.78  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.93