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Human Biological Variation - James H. Mielke

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Authoritative yet accessible, Human Biological Variation, Second Edition, opens with an engaging introduction to basic genetics and the evolutionary forces that set the stage for understanding human diversity. It goes on to offer a clear and detailed discussion of molecular genetics, including its uses and its relationship to anthropological and evolutionary models. The text features up-to-date discussions of classic genetic markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) along with extensive background on DNA analysis and coverage of satellite DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and Alu inserts. It covers such current issues as the meaning and significance of "race," quantitative genetics and the "nature versus nurture" debates, biocultural interactions, population structure, and cultural and historical influences on patterns of human variation. Discussing the use of probability and statistics in studying human variation and adaptation in a lucid and approachable way, the book provides clearly explained math that is kept to the level of basic algebra.

Integrating real-world examples on interesting topics--including genetic testing, lactose intolerance, dyslexia, IQ, and homosexuality--the second edition of Human Biological Variation provides the most thorough and contemporary view of our biological diversity.

New to This Edition

* Explorations in Diversity boxes highlight in-the-news examples, including the use of parasites to study human biological variation, determining skin and hair color of Neandertals, and how biology influences mate choice
* Includes a new chapter on milk, taste, and cerumen (Chapter 8)
* Offers more extensive examples of adaptation and physiological variation
* Discusses the latest research on traditional markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) and their uses in anthropological studies of diversity
* Provides updated references, web links, and suggestions for further reading

Industry Reviews

This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive text on human variation I have seen. The authors use excellent examples to elucidate the role of evolutionary forces on human diversity, and they present complex concepts clearly. --Lori Baker, Baylor University (need permission to use quote as edited) "The authors provide an illuminating overview on the history of thinking about race and the classification schemes that have been applied in this arena...Importantly, the authors emphasize humans as social creatures, nothing that our capacity for culture has uniquely influenced our evolutionary trajectory. In most areas, the book is successful in reaching its goals, whereas others could leave readers unsatisfied. Nevertheless, this volume would be appropriate textbook for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate-level course." -- Brian Kemp, The Quarterly Review of Biology

* = new to this edition

Table of Contents

Preface Section I: Background Chapter 1: Comprehending Human Biological Diversity: A Brief History The Beginnings of Western Classification Systems Classifying the Diversity A Shift in Racial Classifications Polygenism More Measuring of Skulls and the Ideal Type Typological Approach Mendelian Genetics Questioning the Usefulness of the Race Concept A Genetic Definition of Race Clines and Populations So, Where Are We Today? Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Chapter 2: The Genetic Basis of Human Variation A Minimalist View of the Requirements for Inheritance via DNA Mitosis produces identical nuclear DNA in daughter cells Meiosis produces haploid daughter cells Human Chromosomes The Processes of Cell Division Mitosis Meiosis Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) The molecular composition of DNA Replication Transcription Translation From Genotype to Phenotype Dominance Mutation Substitutions Insertions and deletions Recombinations Translocations and non-disjunction Mutation frequencies Basic Transmission Genetics - The Mendelian Laws Mendel's First Law - segregation of alleles Mendel's Second Law - independent assortment of alleles Beyond Mendel Sex-linked inheritance Mitochondrial DNA What Is a Gene? *Explorations in Diversity: Telomere Length and Aging Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Chapter 3: Population Genetics and Human Variation Probability Theory Probability rules Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Allele frequencies Expected genotype frequencies Why is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium important? How can we tell if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Multiple locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Assortative mating Inbreeding Evolutionary Forces Mutation Selection Drift Migration Combining forces Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Section II: Variation in Genes, Simple Genetic Traits, and DNA Markers

Chapter 4: Blood Group Polymorphisms *Antigens, Antibodies, and the Immune System *The immune system *Innate immunity Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity) Genetic Polymorphisms in the Blood ABO, Hh (FUT1), Secretor (FUT2), and Lewis (FUT3) Systems The ABO histo-blood group system Hh (FUT1) and Bombay The secretor system (FUT2) The Lewis system (FUT3) *Explorations in Diversity: Histo-Blood Groups and Diet Geographical Distribution and Natural Selection of the ABO Histo-Blood Group System Cholera Syphilis (treponemal diseases) Plague Smallpox *Pathogen receptors Blood group associations Other possible selective factors and the ABO system The Rh System The Rh system and selection *Explorations in Diversity: Erythrocytes as Pathogen Decoys The MNSs Blood Group System The Duffy Blood Group System Other Blood Groups Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Chapter 5: Serum Protein and Red Cell Enzymes Detection of Genetic Polymorphisms Some Plasma Proteins Haptoglobin (alpha-2-globulins) Transferrin (Tf) Group-specific component or vitamin D-binding protein Immunoglobulins (Gm-Am and Km) Apolipoproteins, Beta Lipoproteins, and Beta-2- Glycoproteins Other plasma proteins *Explorations in Diversity: Novel Ways to Explore Human Variation and Evolution Red Cell Enzymes Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Other enzyme systems of anthropological interest Exploring Population Structure with Classical Markers Example 1: The Irish travelers or tinkers Example 2: The origins of Indo-Europeans Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Chapter 6: Human Leukocyte Antigen and Polymorphism The Major Histocompatibility Complex Location and Organization of the MHC Linkage Disequilibrium HLA and Disease Associations HLA and Population Diversity *Explorations in Diversity: HLA and Mate Choice? Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

Chapter 7: Human Hemoglobin Variants Beginnings of Hemoglobin Research The Hemoglobin Molecule and Hemoglobin Genes Hemoglobin Variants The Geographic Distribution of the Sickle Cell Allele How resistance to faliparum malaria works The Possibility of Differential Fertility Origin of the Sickle Cell Allele Other Hemoglobinopathies HbE (Hemoglobin E) HbC (Hemoglobin C) Other Hemoglobinopathies of anthropological interest Thalassemias Alpha-thalassemias Beta- thalassemias Thalassemia Haplotypes The Thalassemias and Natural Selection Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources

*Chapter 8: Milk, Taste, and Cerumen Lactase Restriction and Persistence Taste: Phenylthiocarbamide (6-N-PROPYLTHIOURACIL) Variation in Ear Wax, or Cerumen Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 9: DNA Markers Molecular Genetic Techniques and DNA Variation Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) Insertions and deletions (

ISBN: 9780195387407
ISBN-10: 0195387406
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 464
Published: 17th March 2010
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.69
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised