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Human Biodiversity : Genes, Race, and History - Jonathan Marks

Human Biodiversity

Genes, Race, and History

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Published: 1st January 1995
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Are humans unique? This simple question, at the very heart of the hybrid field of biological anthropology, poses one of the false of dichotomies-with a stereotypical humanist answering in the affirmative and a stereotypical scientist answering in the negative.

The study of human biology is different from the study of the biology of other species. In the simplest terms, people's lives and welfare may depend upon it, in a sense that they may not depend on the study of other scientific subjects. Where science is used to validate ideas-four out of five scientists preferring a brand of cigarettes or toothpaste-there is a tendency to accept the judgment as authoritative without asking the kinds of questions we might ask of other citizens' pronouncements.

 

"Anthropologists and geneticists alike will find this well-researched and well-written book on human variations both instructive and challenging." -Outstanding Title!... Marks traces the history of scientific attempts to describe and account for human biological variation. Covering the 17th century to the present, his study stresses the derivation of scientific ideas from the social problems and values with which they share history... A highly readable, thought-provoking, and comprehensive treatment of popular and scholarly interest in race and human variation. General readers; upper-division undergraduates and above.-

--S. A. Quandt, Choice

-[Jonathan Marks's] thoughtful and witty book is about one of the -wrongest- of scientific notions: namely, the idea that the human species can be divided into discrete biological subunits, or races.... Marks casts his book as both an introduction to the current state of human genetics and a cautionary historical tale about what happens when scientists do not examine their most basic assumptions. Beginning in 1699 with the publication of Edward Tyson's famous comparison of a human and a chimp, Marks structures his historical account around the assumptions that have given rise to the 20th-century biological concept of race.... What Marks has given us is truly a -people's history of human biodiversity.- I do not know of a more lively and heartfelt introduction.-

--Misia Landau, American Anthropologist "Outstanding Title!... Marks traces the history of scientific attempts to describe and account for human biological variation. Covering the 17th century to the present, his study stresses the derivation of scientific ideas from the social problems and values with which they share history... A highly readable, thought-provoking, and comprehensive treatment of popular and scholarly interest in race and human variation. General readers; upper-division undergraduates and above."

--S. A. Quandt, Choice

"[Jonathan Marks's] thoughtful and witty book is about one of the "wrongest" of scientific notions: namely, the idea that the human species can be divided into discrete biological subunits, or races.... Marks casts his book as both an introduction to the current state of human genetics and a cautionary historical tale about what happens when scientists do not examine their most basic assumptions. Beginning in 1699 with the publication of Edward Tyson's famous comparison of a human and a chimp, Marks structures his historical account around the assumptions that have given rise to the 20th-century biological concept of race.... What Marks has given us is truly a "people's history of human biodiversity." I do not know of a more lively and heartfelt introduction."

--Misia Landau, American Anthropologist "Outstanding Title!... Marks traces the history of scientific attempts to describe and account for human biological variation. Covering the 17th century to the present, his study stresses the derivation of scientific ideas from the social problems and values with which they share history... A highly readable, thought-provoking, and comprehensive treatment of popular and scholarly interest in race and human variation. General readers; upper-division undergraduates and above."

--S. A. Quandt, Choice

"[Jonathan Marks's] thoughtful and witty book is about one of the "wrongest" of scientific notions: namely, the idea that the human species can be divided into discrete biological subunits, or races.... Marks casts his book as both an introduction to the current state of human genetics and a cautionary historical tale about what happens when scientists do not examine their most basic assumptions. Beginning in 1699 with the publication of Edward Tyson's famous comparison of a human and a chimp, Marks structures his historical account around the assumptions that have given rise to the 20th-century biological concept of race.... What Marks has given us is truly a "people's history of human biodiversity." I do not know of a more lively and heartfelt introduction."

--Misia Landau, American Anthropologist

Acknowledgments
The Hierarchyp. 1
Pattern and Processp. 3
The Pattern: Linnaeusp. 6
The Opposition: Buffonp. 7
The Process: Lamarckp. 10
The Synthesis: Darwinp. 11
The Place of Humans in Naturep. 12
Anchoring the Emergence of Humansp. 18
The Great Chain in Cultural Evolutionp. 18
Emergence of the Modern Culture Theoryp. 19
Change without Progress: The Biological and Social History of the Human Speciesp. 22
Processes and Patterns in the Evolutionary History of Our Speciesp. 25
Narrative as a Scientific Mediump. 25
Adaptation Storiesp. 26
Disturbing the Conservative Nature of Heredityp. 28
Reproduction of Organisms: Meiosisp. 29
Reproduction of Populations: The Gene Poolp. 32
Microevolutionary Processesp. 33
Macroevolutionary Processesp. 37
Evolutionary Narrativesp. 38
Human Macroevolutionp. 40
Linking Data into Historiesp. 42
Patterns in the Evolution of Species and Culturep. 44
Physical Anthropology as the Study of Human Variationp. 49
The History of Biology and the Biology of Historyp. 63
History as Inborn Propensities: Arthur de Gobineaup. 64
History, Biology, and the Theory of Progressp. 66
Social Selection: Biological Progress as Social Progressp. 68
Survival of the Fittest: Parallel Progressive Processesp. 69
Competition of a Different Sort: Progress in History without Biologyp. 70
Divorce of Race and Culture: Progress as an Illusionp. 71
The Culture Concept Nudges Out the Race Conceptp. 73
The Eugenics Movementp. 77
A Simple Plan for Making Life Betterp. 77
Mendelism in Eugenicsp. 80
American Eugenics: The Peril of the Huddled Massesp. 81
Eugenics: Science and Pseudosciencep. 86
Eugenics in National Socialist Germanyp. 88
Why Eugenics Failedp. 89
Lessons for Our Timep. 92
Racial and Racist Anthropologyp. 99
Racism and Eugenicsp. 99
Human Diversityp. 101
Racist Studiesp. 102
Racial Studiesp. 104
What do Differences among Human Groups Represent?p. 106
Performance and Abilityp. 109
Race as a Social Constructp. 110
The Linnaean and Buffonian Frameworksp. 113
Patterns of Variation in Human Populationsp. 117
The Phenotype in Racial Studiesp. 117
Developmental Plasticity: The Skull in Racial Studiesp. 120
Genetics and the Human Racesp. 125
Blood Group Allele Frequencies in Populationsp. 130
Genetics of the Human Speciesp. 133
Human Molecular and Microevolutionary Geneticsp. 137
Genes and Proteinsp. 137
The Genomep. 139
Hemoglobinp. 142
Genome Structure and Evolution in the Globin Genesp. 143
The Comparison of Genetic Regionsp. 144
Hemoglobin Variation in the Human Speciesp. 146
Thalassemiap. 147
Genetic Screeningp. 148
Modern Eugenicsp. 150
Hereditarianismp. 151
Human Diversity in the Light of Modern Geneticsp. 157
Differences among the "Three Races"p. 158
The Social Nature of Geographical Categoriesp. 161
Patterns of Genetic Differentiationp. 165
Mitochondrial Evep. 169
Patterns of Genetic Diversityp. 172
The Genetics of Individualityp. 173
The Human Genome Projectp. 174
Who Is Related to Whom?p. 176
The Adaptive Nature of Human Variationp. 183
Patterns of Gene Flowp. 185
Adaptationp. 187
Genetic Adaptationp. 191
Human Variation as Phenotype Adaptationp. 193
Nutritional Variationp. 195
Uniquenesses of Human Adaptationp. 196
Cultural Selectionp. 198
Culture as a Social Markerp. 199
Health and Human Populationsp. 203
Demographic Transitionsp. 204
Demography versus Eugenicsp. 204
Economics and Biologyp. 204
The Cultural Nature of Diseasep. 209
Ethnic Diseasesp. 211
Culture and Biology: AIDSp. 213
Culture as Technological Fixp. 215
Human Traits: Heritage or Habitus?p. 219
Aesop and Darwinp. 220
Sex and the Single Fruitflyp. 224
Rape as Heritage or Habitusp. 226
Proximate and Ultimate Cause in Biologyp. 228
The Asphalt Junglep. 231
Human Behavior as Heritagep. 232
Genetics and the Evolution of Human Behaviorp. 237
On the Number of Michael Jordans in the Known Universep. 237
Comparing Groups of Peoplep. 238
Where Are the Great Jewish Boxers?p. 240
How do we Establish the Genetic Base of a Behavior?p. 243
The Genetics of Deviancep. 244
The Hereditarian Jumblep. 246
The Genetic Basis of Sexual Deviancep. 250
Genetic Behavior: Here Today, Gone Tomorrowp. 253
Platonism and the Search for Human Naturep. 255
Was Hammerstein Wrong?p. 258
Race, Xenophobia, and Lessons of Historyp. 260
Conclusionsp. 265
Appendix: DNA Structure and Functionp. 279
Indexp. 314
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780202020334
ISBN-10: 0202020339
Series: Foundations of Human Behavior
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 321
Published: 1st January 1995
Publisher: ALDINE PUB
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.45