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How Maps Work : Representation, Visualization, and Design - Alan M. MacEachren

How Maps Work

Representation, Visualization, and Design

Paperback Published: 21st June 2004
ISBN: 9781572300408
Number Of Pages: 513

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Now available in paperback for the first time, this classic work presents a cognitive-semiotic framework for understanding how maps work as powerful, abstract, and synthetic spatial representations. Explored are the ways in which the many representational choices inherent in mapping interact with information processing and knowledge construction, and how the resulting insights can be used to make informed symbolization and design decisions. A new preface to the paperback edition situates the book within the context of contemporary technologies. As the nature of maps continues to evolve, Alan MacEachren emphasizes the ongoing need to think systematically about the ways people interact with and use spatial information.

Industry Reviews

"Should be required reading for anyone making maps."--C. E. Tiedemann, University of Illinois at Chicago

"Alan MacEachren has made a significant and important contribution to our understanding of cartography. The map is as old as societies themselves and is a fundamental building block of human knowledge. This book should be mandatory reading for all those interested in the role of maps in the emerging information era."--D. R. F. Taylor, past president, International Cartographic Association

"I believe this book to be a milestone in the literature of cartography. There have been texts on the history, on the production/design and to aid the teaching of maps and mapping but there has never been such a comprehensive and balanced examination of maps as tools....With its rich array of subtopics, levels of treatment and specialized sections worthy of deep quarrying, and also its extensive and fascinating range of illustrations, I believe that this book can command a wide and varied readership. It will certainly become a foundation stone in my own teaching and research library."--Michael Wood, Centre for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science, Department of Geography, University of Aberdeen, Scotland

"In looking at maps as spatial representations that stimulate other spatial representations, Alan MacEachren provides an insightful and coherent examination of the cognitive mechanisms underlying map reading and map analysis. How Maps Work is a tour de force for academic cartography and other fields concerned with perceptual, cognitive, and metaphysical aspects of spatial information--a masterful synthesis of interest to anyone curious about the map as a unique and valuable tool for exploration, discovery, and hypothesis testing."--Mark Monmonier, Department of Geography, Syracuse University

Taking a Scientific Approach to Improving Map Representation and Designp. 1
Toward Functional Mapsp. 2
Cartography as Graphic Communicationp. 3
Objections to Scope and Methodp. 6
Art and Sciencep. 8
Deconstructing the Disciplinep. 10
Taking a Fresh Approach to Symbolization and Design Researchp. 11
Organization of This Bookp. 16
How Meaning Is Derived from Mapsp. 21
An Information-Processing View of Vision and Visual Cognitionp. 25
Marr's Approach to Visionp. 27
Visual Cognitionp. 33
Processing of Visual Stimulip. 33
Processing of Imageryp. 46
Conclusionp. 49
How Maps Are Seenp. 51
Eye-Brain Systemp. 53
The Eyep. 54
Eye to Brainp. 63
Brainp. 63
Perceptual Organization and Attentionp. 68
Groupingp. 71
What We Attend Top. 80
Selective Attention and Separability of Visual Dimensionsp. 81
Divided Attention and Variable Conjunctionsp. 87
Associativity of Graphic Variablesp. 91
Indispensable Variablesp. 92
Where We Attendp. 94
Locationp. 94
Scalep. 96
Scanning the Visual Scenep. 101
Figure-Groundp. 107
Heterogeneityp. 110
Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Processingp. 117
Visual Levelsp. 120
Perceptual Categorization and Judgmentp. 123
Detectionp. 124
Discriminationp. 127
Text Discriminationp. 127
Point Feature Discriminationp. 128
Pattern Discriminationp. 130
Color Discriminationp. 132
Motion Discriminationp. 133
Judging Orderp. 134
Judging Relative Manitudep. 135
Perceiving Depth from a Two-Dimensional Scenep. 136
A Taxonomy of Depth Cuesp. 137
Applying Depth Cues to Mapsp. 139
Physiological Approachesp. 139
Perspective Approachesp. 139
Nonperspective Approachesp. 141
Summaryp. 147
How Maps Are Understood: Visual Array to Visual Description [left and right arrow] Kowledge Schemata [left and right arrow] Cognitive Representationp. 150
Mental Categoriesp. 151
Prototype Effectsp. 153
Family Resemblancep. 155
Fuzzy Categoriesp. 156
Typicality Effectsp. 158
Maps as a Radial Categoryp. 160
Basic-Level Categoriesp. 162
Natural versus Cultural Category Structuresp. 167
Multiple Representationsp. 168
Multiple Representations: Common and Scientificp. 168
Fuzzy Representations of Well-Defined Conceptsp. 169
Knowledge Representationp. 170
Kinds of Knowledge Representationp. 171
Kinds of Knowledge Schematap. 174
Propositional Schematap. 176
Image Schematap. 185
Event Schemata (Scripts and Plans)p. 190
Development and Application of Cognitive Schematap. 193
How Map Schemata Are Developedp. 193
Physiological Bases for Map Schematap. 194
Developmental Bases for Map Schematap. 195
General-to-Specific Map Schematap. 198
How Map Schemata Are Selectedp. 202
How Map Schemata Are Usedp. 205
Conclusionp. 209
How Maps Are Imbued with Meaningp. 213
A Primer on Semiotics for Understanding Map Representationp. 217
The Nature of Signsp. 218
Models of the Signp. 219
Typology of Signsp. 222
Typology of Discoursep. 225
How Signs Signify: Specificity or Levels of Meaningp. 228
Typology of Comprehension (or Miscomprehension)p. 232
The Nature of Sign Systemsp. 234
Dimensions of Semiosisp. 234
Systemologyp. 238
Semiotic Economyp. 239
Simultaneity versus Articulationp. 240
Combinatorial Relationsp. 241
Application of the Semiotic Approach to Map Representationp. 242
A Functional Approach to Map Representation: The Semantics and Syntactics of Map Signsp. 244
The Nature of Map Signs-Map Semanticsp. 245
Sign-Vehicle as Mediatorp. 246
Referent as Mediatorp. 250
Interpretant as Mediatorp. 256
The Nature of Map Sign Systems-Map Syntactics: Logical Interrelationshipsp. 269
Visual Variables and Syntactic Rulesp. 270
Static Visual Mapsp. 270
Static Tactile Mapsp. 276
Dynamic Visual Mapsp. 278
Dynamic Audio Mapsp. 287
Sign-Vehicle Setsp. 290
Multiple Linked Sign Systemsp. 295
Maps as Signsp. 302
Map Sign Comprehensionp. 305
Discussionp. 307
A Lexical Approach to Map Representation: Map Pragmaticsp. 310
Meaning in Mapsp. 312
Space, Time, and Attribute Denotationp. 312
Denoting Spatial Positionp. 313
Denoting Temporal Positionp. 315
Denoting Attributes of Position in Space-Timep. 317
Specificity of Signsp. 321
Singular versus General Signsp. 321
Unambiguous versus Ambiguous Signsp. 323
Monosemic versus Polysemic Sign Systemsp. 325
Directness of Reference: Literality of Interpretantsp. 325
Concreteness of Signs: Concept versus Phenomenon Representationsp. 327
Etymology and Cultural Specificity of Meaningp. 329
Meaning of Mapsp. 330
Connotative Meaning of Map Signsp. 331
Extrasignificant Codesp. 332
A Typology of Map Connotationp. 336
The Map Itself as an Implicit Codep. 338
Connotation of Veracity: Truth and Realityp. 338
Connotation of Integrity: Map Ethicsp. 340
Valuative Connotations: Judgmentsp. 342
Connotations of Power: Territorial Controlp. 345
Incitive Connotations: Persuasion to Actionp. 348
Can Connotations Be Measured?p. 349
Synopsis and Directionsp. 351
How Maps Are Used: Applications in Geographic Visualizationp. 355
GVIS: Facilitating Visual Thinkingp. 361
A Model of Feature Matchingp. 362
Linking Perceptual Organization and Map Syntacticsp. 367
Indispensable Variablesp. 368
2-D Spacep. 369
Simulated 3-Dp. 370
Timep. 376
Scale and Resolutionp. 380
Spacep. 380
Attributesp. 384
Timep. 385
Spatial Feature Enhancement through Graphic Variable Manipulationp. 386
Using Monochrome Variablesp. 387
Using Color Variablesp. 389
The Role of Categories and Schematap. 392
Conclusionsp. 398
GVIS: Relationships in Space and Timep. 401
Feature Comparison: Looking for Relationships in Multidimensional Datap. 401
Spacep. 402
Orientationp. 409
Colorp. 411
Timep. 416
Focusingp. 418
Soundp. 419
Space-Time Processesp. 422
Categorizing Space-Time Phenomenap. 423
Mapping Temporal Entities to Display Variablesp. 425
Exploring Space-Time Processes: Kinds of Interactionp. 427
Process Trackingp. 428
Postprocessingp. 429
Process Steeringp. 432
Discussionp. 433
GVIS: Should We Believe What We See?p. 435
How to Judge "Truth" in GVISp. 435
Truth of Signs in the Displayp. 436
Truth of the Display as Sign: Seeing Wrong versus Not Seeingp. 444
What "Truth" Is in GVISp. 447
Visual Thinking and Cognitive Gravityp. 448
Public Presentation and Implicit Connotationp. 452
Discussionp. 456
Postscriptp. 459
Referencesp. 463
Author Indexp. 491
Subject Indexp. 497
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781572300408
ISBN-10: 157230040X
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 513
Published: 21st June 2004
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.23 x 15.24  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.85
Edition Number: 2