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Hot-Carrier Reliability of MOS VLSI Circuits : The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science - Yusuf Leblebici

Hot-Carrier Reliability of MOS VLSI Circuits

The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science

Hardcover Published: 30th June 1993
ISBN: 9780792393528
Number Of Pages: 212

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As the complexity and the density of VLSI chips increase with shrinking design rules, the evaluation of long-term reliability of MOS VLSI circuits is becoming an important problem. The assessment and improvement of reliability on the circuit level should be based on both the failure mode analysis and the basic understanding of the physical failure mechanisms observed in integrated circuits. Hot-carrier induced degrada­ tion of MOS transistor characteristics is one of the primary mechanisms affecting the long-term reliability of MOS VLSI circuits. It is likely to become even more important in future generation chips, since the down­ ward scaling of transistor dimensions without proportional scaling of the operating voltage aggravates this problem. A thorough understanding of the physical mechanisms leading to hot-carrier related degradation of MOS transistors is a prerequisite for accurate circuit reliability evaluation. It is also being recognized that important reliability concerns other than the post-manufacture reliability qualification need to be addressed rigorously early in the design phase. The development and use of accurate reliability simulation tools are therefore crucial for early assessment and improvement of circuit reliability : Once the long-term reliability of the circuit is estimated through simulation, the results can be compared with predetermined reliability specifications or limits. If the predicted reliability does not satisfy the requirements, appropriate design modifications may be carried out to improve the resistance of the devices to degradation.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introductionp. 1
The Concept of IC Reliabilityp. 1
Design-for-Reliabilityp. 4
VLSI Reliability Problemsp. 6
Gradual Degradation versus Catastrophic Failuresp. 7
Hot-Carrier Effectsp. 9
Oxide Degradation Mechanisms in MOS Transistorsp. 15
MOS Transistor : A Qualitative Viewp. 16
The Nature of Gate Oxide Damage in MOSFETsp. 19
Injection of Hot Carriers into Gate Oxidep. 21
Oxide Traps and Charge Trappingp. 31
Interface Trap Generationp. 34
Bias Dependence of Degradation Mechanismsp. 36
Degradation under Dynamic Operating Conditionsp. 39
Effects of Hot-Carrier Damage on Device Characteristicsp. 43
Hot-Carrier Induced Degradation of pMOS Transistorsp. 47
Modeling of Degradation Mechanismsp. 55
Quasi-Elastic Scattering Current Modelp. 56
Charge (Electron) Trapping Modelp. 64
Impact Ionization Current Modelp. 66
Interface Trap Generation Modelp. 67
Trap Generation under Dynamic Operating Conditionsp. 71
Modeling of Damaged MOSFETsp. 77
Representation of Hot-Carrier Induced Oxide Damagep. 78
Two-Dimensional Modeling of Damaged MOSFETsp. 80
Empirical One-Dimensional Modelingp. 83
An Analytical Damaged MOSFET Modelp. 89
Consideration of Channel Velocity Limitationsp. 101
Pseudo Two-Dimensional Modeling of Damaged MOSFETsp. 103
Table-Based Modeling Approachesp. 104
Transistor-Level Simulation for Circuit Reliabilityp. 111
Review of Circuit Reliability Simulation Toolsp. 112
Circuit Reliability Simulation Using iSMILE : A Case Studyp. 119
Circuit Simulation Examplesp. 124
Evaluation of the Simulation Algorithmp. 133
Identification of Critical Devicesp. 136
Fast Timing Simulation for Circuit Reliabilityp. 143
ILLIADS-R : A Fast Timing and Reliability Simulatorp. 144
Fast Dynamic Reliability Simulationp. 148
Circuit Simulation Examples with ILLIADS-Rp. 155
iDSIM2 : Hierarchical Circuit Reliability Simulationp. 159
Macromodeling of Hot-Carrier Induced Degradation in MOS Circuitsp. 165
Macromodel Development : Starting Assumptionsp. 166
Degradation Macromodel for CMOS Invertersp. 167
Degradation Macromodel for nMOS Pass Gatesp. 173
Application of the Macromodel to Inverter Chain Circuitsp. 179
Application of the Macromodel to CMOS Logic Circuitsp. 186
Circuit Design for Reliabilityp. 191
Device-Level Measuresp. 193
Circuit-Level Measuresp. 199
Rule-Based Diagnosis of Circuit Reliabilityp. 203
Indexp. 209
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792393528
ISBN-10: 079239352X
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 212
Published: 30th June 1993
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.42
Weight (kg): 1.13