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High-speed Circuit Board Signal Integrity : Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover) - Stephen C. Thierauf

High-speed Circuit Board Signal Integrity

Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover)

Hardcover Published: 26th February 2004
ISBN: 9781580531313
Number Of Pages: 264

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As circuit boards are increasingly required to transmit signals at higher and higher speeds, signal and power integrity become increasingly crucial. Rules of thumb that you have used over and over again to prevent signal loss no longer apply to these new, high-speed, high-density circuit designs. This leading-edge circuit design resource offers you the knowledge needed to quickly pinpoint transmission problems that can compromise your entire circuit design. Discussing both design and debug issues at gigabit per second data rates, the book serves as a practical reference for your projects involving high-speed serial signaling on printed wiring boards.

Prefacep. xiii
Characteristics and Construction of Printed Wiring Boardsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Unit Systemp. 1
PWB Constructionp. 2
Resinsp. 3
Alternate Resin Systemsp. 3
Reinforcementsp. 5
Variability in Building Stackupsp. 6
Mixing Laminate Typesp. 7
PWB Tracesp. 7
Copper Claddingp. 8
Copper Weights and Thicknessp. 9
Plating the Surface Tracesp. 9
Trace Etch Shape Effectsp. 9
Viasp. 10
Via Aspect Ratiop. 13
Surface Finishes and Solder Maskp. 14
Summaryp. 14
Referencesp. 15
Resistance of Etched Conductorsp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Resistance at Low Frequenciesp. 17
Loop Resistance and the Proximity Effectp. 20
Resistance Matrixp. 21
Proximity Effectp. 22
Resistance Increase with Frequency: Skin Effectp. 24
Hand Calculations of Frequency-Dependent Resistancep. 27
Return Path Resistancep. 28
Conductor Resistancep. 28
Total Loop Resistancep. 29
Resistance Increase Due to Surface Roughnessp. 29
Summaryp. 30
Referencesp. 30
Capacitance of Etched Conductorsp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Capacitance and Chargep. 31
Dielectric Constantp. 32
Parallel Plate Capacitorp. 33
Self and Mutual Capacitancep. 35
Capacitance Matrixp. 37
Dielectric Lossesp. 39
Reactance and Displacement Currentp. 40
Loss Tangentp. 40
Calculating Loss Tangent and Conductance Gp. 41
Environmental Effects on Laminate [epsilon subscript r] and Loss Tangentp. 43
Temperature Effectsp. 44
Moisture Effectsp. 44
Summaryp. 45
Referencesp. 45
Inductance of Etched Conductorsp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Field Theoryp. 47
Permeabilityp. 48
Inductancep. 48
Internal and External Inductancep. 49
Partial Inductancep. 49
Reciprocity Principal and Transverse Electromagnetic Modep. 50
Circuit Behavior of Inductancep. 51
Inductive Voltage Dropp. 53
Inductive Reactancep. 54
Inductance Matrixp. 55
Using the Reciprocity Principle to Obtain the Inductance Matrix from a Capacitance Matrixp. 55
Mutual Inductancep. 55
Coupling Coefficientp. 56
Beneficial Effects of Mutual Inductancep. 57
Deleterious Effects of Mutual Inductancep. 59
Hand Calculations for Inductancep. 60
Inductance of a Wire Above a Return Planep. 60
Inductance of Side-by-Side Wiresp. 61
Inductance of Parallel Platesp. 61
Inductance of Microstripp. 63
Inductance of Striplinep. 63
Summaryp. 64
Referencesp. 65
Transmission Linesp. 67
Introductionp. 67
General Circuit Model of a Lossy Transmission Linep. 67
Relationship Between [omega]L and Rp. 70
Relationship Between [omega]C and Gp. 70
Impedancep. 71
Calculating Impedancep. 72
Traveling Wavesp. 73
Propagation Constantp. 74
Phase Shift, Delay, and Wavelengthp. 75
Phase Constant at High Frequencies When R and G Are Smallp. 78
Attenuationp. 79
Neper and Decibel Conversionp. 80
Summary and Worked Examplesp. 82
Referencesp. 86
Return Paths and Power Supply Decouplingp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Proper Return Pathsp. 87
Return Paths of Ground-Referenced Signalsp. 89
Striplinep. 90
Stripline Routed Between Power and Ground Planesp. 90
When Power Plane Voltage Is the Same as Signal Voltagep. 90
When Power Plane Voltage Differs from Signal Voltagep. 93
Power System Inductancep. 94
Split Planes, Motes, and Layer Changesp. 95
Motesp. 95
Layer Changesp. 98
Connectors and Dense Pin Fieldsp. 98
Plane Perforationp. 99
Antipadsp. 99
Nonfunctional Padsp. 102
Guidelines for Routing Through Dense Pin Fieldsp. 103
Power Supply Bypass/Decoupling Capacitancep. 105
Power Supply Integrityp. 106
Distributed Power Supply Interconnect Modelp. 110
Connecting to Decoupling Capacitorsp. 112
Via Inductancep. 112
Summaryp. 114
Referencesp. 115
Serial Communication, Loss, and Equalizationp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Harmonic Contents of a Data Streamp. 117
Line Spectrap. 119
Combining Harmonics to Create a Pulsep. 120
The Fourier Integralp. 122
Rectangular Pulses with Nonzero Rise Timesp. 123
Line Codesp. 125
Bit Rate and Data Ratep. 126
Block Codes Used in Serial Transmissionp. 128
ISIp. 130
Dispersionp. 130
Lone 1-Bit Patternp. 131
Eye Diagramsp. 132
Equalization and Preemphasisp. 134
Preemphasisp. 134
Passive Equalizersp. 137
Passive RC Equalizerp. 139
DC-Blocking Capacitorsp. 140
Calculating the Coupling Capacitor Valuep. 142
Summaryp. 145
Referencesp. 146
Single-Ended and Differential Signaling and Crosstalkp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Odd and Even Modesp. 149
Circuit Description of Odd and Even Modesp. 150
Coupling Coefficientp. 153
Stripline and Microstrip Odd- and Even-Mode Timingp. 155
Effects of Spacing on Impedancep. 157
Multiconductor Transmission Linesp. 158
Bus Segmentation for Simulation Purposesp. 159
Switching Behavior of a Wide Busp. 160
Simulation Results for Loosely Coupled Linesp. 161
Simulation Results for Tightly Coupled Linesp. 162
Data-Dependent Timing Jitter in Multiconductor Transmission Linesp. 164
Differential Signaling, Termination, and Layout Rulesp. 165
Differential Signals and Noise Rejectionp. 165
Differential Impedance and Terminationp. 166
Reflection Coefficient and Return Lossp. 170
PWB Layout Rules When Routing Differential Pairsp. 172
Crosstalkp. 173
Coupled-Line Circuit Modelp. 175
NEXT and FEXT Coupling Factorsp. 177
Using K[subscript b] to Predict NEXTp. 178
Using K[subscript f] to Predict FEXTp. 179
Guard Tracesp. 179
Crosstalk Worked Examplep. 180
Crosstalk Summaryp. 182
Summaryp. 182
Referencesp. 183
Characteristics of Printed Wiring Stripline and Microstripsp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Striplinep. 185
Time of Flightp. 186
Impedance Relationship Between Trace Width, Thickness, and Plate Spacingp. 187
Mask Biasing to Obtain a Specific Impedancep. 189
Hand Calculation of Z[subscript o]p. 189
Stripline Fabricationp. 191
Microstripp. 193
Exposed Microstripp. 194
Solder Mask and Embedded Microstripp. 196
Losses in Stripline and Microstripp. 197
Dielectric Lossp. 199
Conductor Lossp. 199
Microstrip and Stripline Differential Pairsp. 201
Broadside Coupled Striplinep. 201
Edge-Coupled Striplinep. 204
Edge-Coupled Microstripp. 205
Summaryp. 206
Referencesp. 207
Surface Mount Capacitorsp. 209
Introductionp. 209
Ceramic Surface Mount Capacitorsp. 209
Dielectric Temperature Characteristics Classificationp. 209
Body Size Codingp. 211
Frequency Responsep. 212
Inductive Effects: ESLp. 214
Dielectric and Conductor Losses: ESRp. 215
Leakage Currents: Insulation Resistancep. 218
Electrical Modelp. 219
MLCC Capacitor Agingp. 220
Capacitance Change with DC Bias and Frequencyp. 221
MLCC Usage Guidelinesp. 222
SMT Tantalum Capacitorsp. 223
Body Size Codingp. 223
Frequency Responsep. 224
Electrical Modelp. 225
Agingp. 225
Effects of DC Bias, Temperature, and Relative Humidityp. 225
Failure of Tantalum Capacitorsp. 226
ESR and Self Heating: Voltage and Temperature Deratingp. 227
Usage Guidelinesp. 227
Replacing Tantalum with High-Valued Ceramic Capacitorsp. 228
Referencesp. 230
Conversion Factorsp. 231
About the Authorp. 233
Indexp. 235
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781580531313
ISBN-10: 1580531318
Series: Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover)
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 264
Published: 26th February 2004
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 1.5
Weight (kg): 0.61