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High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering : From Thin Films to Lateral Nanostructures - Ulrich Pietsch

High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering

From Thin Films to Lateral Nanostructures

Hardcover

Published: 1st August 2004
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The book presents a detailed description of high-resolution x-ray scattering methods suitable for the investigation of the real structure of single-crystalline layers and multilayers, including structure defects in the layers and at the interfaces. Particular attention is devoted to lateral structures in semiconductors and semiconductor multilayers such as quantum wires and quantum dots. Both the theoretical background and the application of the methods are discussed. The second edition is extended to deal with lateral surface nanostructures such as gratings and dots, new examples for measuring layer thickness, lattice mismatch, and surface/interface roughness. The book will be an invaluable source for graduates and scientists.

Experimental Realization
Elements for Designing an X-Ray Diffraction Experimentp. 5
X-Ray Sourcesp. 5
Optical Elementsp. 11
Detectorsp. 23
Diffractometers and Reflectometersp. 31
X-Ray Reflectometersp. 32
High-Resolution Diffractometerp. 37
Limits of the Use of Powder Diffractometersp. 39
Grazing-Incidence Diffractionp. 40
Scans and Resolution in Angular and Reciprocal Spacep. 43
Coherence of Radiation and Correlation of Sample Propertiesp. 44
Scans Across the Reciprocal Spacep. 47
Resolution Elementsp. 51
Basic Principles
Basic Principlesp. 63
Description of the X-Ray Wavefield in Vacuump. 63
General Description of the Scattering Processp. 65
Direction of Scattered Wavesp. 68
Kinematical Theoryp. 75
Scattering From a Perfect Layerp. 75
Two-Beam Approximationp. 81
Kinematical Scattering From Deformed Crystalsp. 85
Kinematical Scattering From Multilayersp. 87
Kinematical Scattering From Randomly Deformed Crystalsp. 91
Dynamical Theoryp. 97
The Wave Equation for a Periodic Mediump. 97
Boundary Conditionsp. 99
X-Ray Reflectionp. 102
Two-Beam Diffractionp. 104
Layered Samplesp. 112
Multilayers: X-Ray Reflectionp. 116
Multilayers: Conventional X-Ray Diffractionp. 117
A Comment on the Three-Beam Diffractionp. 119
Semikinematical Theoryp. 123
Basic Formulasp. 123
Examplesp. 125
Small-Angle Scattering from Empty Holes in a Semi-infinite Matrixp. 125
Small-Angle Scattering from Pyramidal Islands Randomly Placed on a Flat Surfacep. 128
Diffuse Scattering in Diffraction from Empty Holes in a Crystalp. 129
Diffraction from a Thin Layer on a Semi-infinite Substratep. 132
Solution of Experimental Problems
Determination of Layer Thicknesses of Single Layers and Multilayersp. 143
X-Ray Reflection by Single Layersp. 144
X-Ray Reflection by Periodical Multilayersp. 153
Coplanar X-Ray Diffraction by Single Layersp. 161
Coplanar X-Ray Diffraction by Periodical Superlatticesp. 166
X-Ray Grazing Incidence Diffractionp. 171
Buried Layersp. 174
Lattice Parameters and Strains in Epitaxial Layers and Multilayersp. 179
Conventional Coplanar Diffractionp. 179
Reciprocal-Space Mappingp. 190
Coplanar Extremely Asymmetric Diffractionp. 193
Utilization of Anomalous Scattering Effectsp. 197
Grazing-Incidence Diffractionp. 198
Diffuse Scattering From Volume Defects in Thin Layersp. 205
Weak and Strong Defectsp. 205
Diffuse Scattering From Weak Defectsp. 207
Weak Defects in a Subsurface Layerp. 215
Small-Angle Scattering From Small Defects in Thin Layersp. 223
Diffuse Scattering From an Array of Misfit Dislocationsp. 225
Diffuse Scattering From Mosaic Layersp. 228
X-Ray Scattering by Rough Multilayersp. 235
Interface Roughness, Scattering Potential, and Statistical Propertiesp. 236
Specular X-Ray Reflectionp. 241
Non-Specular X-Ray Reflectionp. 252
General Approachp. 252
Resonant Diffuse Scatteringp. 260
Dynamical Scattering Effectsp. 263
Non-Coplanar X-Ray Reflectionp. 265
Interface Roughness in Surface-Sensitive Diffraction Methodsp. 267
X-Ray Scattering by Laterally Structured Semiconductor Nano-Structures
X-Ray Scattering by Artificially Lateral Semiconductor Nanostructuresp. 279
The Scattering Potential and the Structure Amplitudep. 280
Kinematical Theoryp. 286
Dynamical Theoryp. 287
Distorted Wave-Born Approximation for Grazing-Incidence Diffractionp. 291
Distorted Wave-Born Approximation for X-Ray Diffractionp. 294
Determination of the Lateral Superstructurep. 299
Grating Period and the Etching Depthp. 299
Reciprocal-Space Mappingp. 300
Orientation of the Grating Patternp. 303
Grating Shapep. 305
Superlattice Surface Gratingsp. 310
Shape and the Morphological Set-Up of a Multilayer Gratingp. 311
Non-Epitaxial Gratingsp. 312
Strain Analysis in Periodic Nanostructuresp. 317
Strain Analysis in Surface Gratingsp. 318
Simple Strain Modelsp. 319
Full Quantitative Strain Analysis by Coupling Elasticity Theory and X-Ray Diffractionp. 324
Strain in Superlattice Surface Gratingsp. 329
Quantum Dotsp. 332
Strain Evolution Due to Embeddingp. 334
Strain Optimization and Strain-Induced Band Gap Engineeringp. 340
Strain-Induced Morphological Ordering in Buried Gratingsp. 343
Induced Strain Gratings in Planar Structuresp. 345
Periodic Dislocation Network in Wafer-Bonded Samples345
Dynamical Strain Gratingsp. 350
X-Ray Scattering from Self-Organized Structuresp. 353
Self-Organizing Growth Modesp. 353
Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Self-Organized Nanostructuresp. 357
Short-Range-Order Modelp. 359
Long-Range-Order Modelp. 362
Two-Dimensional Gas of Objectsp. 364
X-Ray Diffraction from Self-Organized Nanostructuresp. 368
Referencesp. 389
Indexp. 403
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387400921
ISBN-10: 0387400923
Series: Advanced Texts in Physics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 408
Published: 1st August 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.03
Weight (kg): 0.86
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised