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High-Accuracy CMOS Smart Temperature Sensors : KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE - Anton Bakker

High-Accuracy CMOS Smart Temperature Sensors

KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

Hardcover

Published: 30th November 2000
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This book describes the theory and design of high-accuracy CMOS smart temperature sensors. The major topic of the work is the realization of a smart temperature sensor that has an accuracy that is so high that it can be applied without any form of calibration. Integrated in a low-cost CMOS technology, this yields at the publication date of this book one of the most inexpensive intelligent general purpose temperature sensors in the world. The first thermometers could only be read by the human eye. The industrial revolution and the following computerization asked for more intelligent sensors, which could easily communicate to digital computers. This led to· the development of integrated temperature sensors that combine a bipolar temperature sensor and an A-to-D converter on the same chip. The implementation in CMOS technology reduces the processing costs to a minimum while having the best-suited technology to increase the (digital) intelligence. The accuracy of conventional CMOS smart temperature sensors is degraded by the offset of the read-out electronics. Calibration of these errors is quite expensive, however, dynamic offset-cancellation techniques can reduce the offset of amplifiers by a factor 100 to 1000 and do not need trimming. Chapter two gives an elaborate description of the different kinds of dynamic offset-cancellation techniques. Also a new technique is introduced called the nested chopper technique. An implementation of a CMOS nested-chopper instrumentation amplifier shows a residual offset of less than lOOn V, which is the best result reported to date.

Prefacep. ix
Introductionp. 1
Temperature sensingp. 1
CMOS smart temperature sensorsp. 3
Motivation and objectivesp. 4
Organization of the workp. 5
Referencesp. 7
Dynamic offset-cancellation techniquesp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Offset and noise in CMOS amplifiersp. 10
Naming conventions and classificationp. 13
Autozero techniquesp. 14
Principlep. 14
Residual noisep. 15
Self-calibrating opampp. 16
Correlated double samplingp. 17
Ping-pong opampp. 17
Chopper-stabilizationp. 18
Three-signal approachp. 19
Chopper techniquesp. 20
Principlep. 20
Residual noisep. 22
Residual offsetp. 23
Gain accuracyp. 25
Chopper opampp. 26
Nested chopper techniquep. 28
Principlep. 28
Analysisp. 29
Realizationp. 30
Measurement resultsp. 32
Conclusionsp. 33
Referencesp. 34
CMOS bandgap referencesp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Temperature curves of the bipolar transistorp. 40
Designp. 43
Non-idealities in practical CMOS bandgap referencesp. 43
Curvature correction techniquesp. 45
Realizationp. 48
Filtering of modulated offsetp. 48
Nested chopper techniquep. 52
Piece-wise-linear circuit implementationp. 54
Measurement resultsp. 55
Conclusionsp. 58
Referencesp. 60
Design of CMOS Smart Temperature Sensorsp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Accuracyp. 64
Power consumptionp. 65
Analog-to-Digital conversionp. 66
Frequency conversionp. 67
Duty-cycle modulationp. 68
Sigma-delta A-to-D conversionp. 69
Kelvin-to-Celsius conversionp. 71
Curvature correctionp. 73
Single transistor temperature sensorsp. 74
Bus interfacesp. 77
Referencesp. 78
Realizations of CMOS Smart Temperature Sensorsp. 79
Tyre monitoring systemp. 79
Motivationp. 79
Specificationp. 82
Design of the tyre temperature sensorp. 83
Detailed design of the tyre temperature sensorp. 85
Measurement resultsp. 90
High-accuracy temperature sensorp. 93
Motivationp. 93
Specificationp. 95
Designp. 98
Measurement resultsp. 105
Remote microprocessor temperature sensorp. 106
Motivationp. 106
Specificationp. 108
Design of the single-transistor temperature sensor interfacep. 110
Detailed design of the remote temperature sensorp. 111
Measurement resultsp. 113
Conclusionsp. 114
Referencesp. 116
Appendixp. 117
Indexp. 119
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792372172
ISBN-10: 0792372174
Series: KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 121
Published: 30th November 2000
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 15.88  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.36