Although Heidegger's relationship to nazism was hinted at as early as 1960, it was only confirmed in 1987 through the publication in France of previously unpublished speeches, lectures and letters. French intellectual responded violently, either vindicating or condemning Heidegger. The two interrelated essays in this volume are Lyotard's contribution to the debate. In the first, "the Jews", Lyotard establishes the theme of the "outsider" by placing "the Jews" in lower case, plural, and in quotation marks to represent the outsiders: artists, anarchists, black, the homeless - and the Jews; they are all a disruptive, alien force which threatens the West's dream of development and fulfilment. In "Heidegger", the second essay, Lyotard postulates a nubmer of rules for explaining the "Heidegger affair", most of which call for a close textual reading, and facilitate interpretation of the affair within the widest possible context.