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Haploids in Crop Improvement I : From Fundamentals to Quantum Computing - Professor Dr. Y. P. S. Bajaj

Haploids in Crop Improvement I

From Fundamentals to Quantum Computing

Hardcover Published: 19th July 1990
ISBN: 9783540507987
Number Of Pages: 549

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Haploid plants have the gametophytic number of chromosomes. They are of great importance, especially in studies on the induction of muta­ tions and also for the production of homozygous plants, they are needed in large numbers. The conventional methods employed by plant breeders for their production are cumbersome, time-consuming, laborious and rather inefficient. Sometimes it may take years to produce a pure line. However, with the introduction of in vitro techniques, especially anther culture for the induction of androgenesis, it has become increasingly evi­ dent that these methods considerably accelerate the production of haploids for plant breeding programs. During the last decade, in vitro-produced haploids have been incor­ porated into breeding programs of many agricultural crops, and positive results have been obtained especially with rice, wheat, potato, barley, maize, asparagus, sunflower, brassica, tobacco, etc. Among these, rice and wheat are the best examples in which a number of improved varieties have been released. In wheat, the breeding cycle can be shortened by three or four generations when the pollen haploid breeding method is used instead of conventional cross-breeding. The release of the wheat varieties Jinghua 1 and Florin is a typical example of what can be achieved with other crops. Taking these developments into considera­ tion, the present volume, Haploids in Crop Improvement I, was compil­ ed.

Induction of Haploids, Pollen Embryogenesis, Ultrastructure, and Genetic Stability.- I.1 In Vitro Production of Haploids and Their Use in Cell Genetics and Plant Breeding.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Culture of Excised Ovaries and Ovules.- 4 Elimination of Chromosomes by the Bulbosum Technique.- 5 Uses of Haploids in Cell Genetics and Plant Breeding.- 6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- I.2 Environmental and Genetical Aspects of Pollen Embryogenesis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Culture Techniques.- 3 Genetical Factors.- 4 Environmental Factors.- 5 Conclusions.- Reference.- I.3 Ultrastructure Of Pollen Embryogenesis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture of Hyoscyamus niger.- 3 Ultrastructural Studies.- 4 Discussion.- 5 General Conclusions.- Reference.- I.4 Genetic Stability in Haploid Cell Cultures.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Types of Genetic Variation.- 3 Sources of Variability.- 4 Control of Variability.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Cereals.- II.1 Wheat (Triticum aestivum): In Vitro Production and Utilization of Doubled Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 5.2 The Elimination of Garbage in Two-Valued Reversible Circuits.- 3 The Genetic Route.- 4 Chemical Hybridization Agents (CHA) Method.- 5 Gametoclonal Variation: Biometrical and Molecular Aspects.- 6 Haplodiploidization and Wheat Breeding.- 7 Protocol.- 8 Concluding Remark.- References.- II.2 Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): Anther Culture and the Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Whole Spike Culture.- 4 Culture of Isolated Pollen.- 5 Performance of Dihaploid Plants in the Field.- 6 Conclusions and Prospects.- 7 Protocol.- References.- 7 II.3 Maize (Zea mays L.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 General Account.- 2 In Vitro Production of Haploids by Anther Culture.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Future Anther Culture Research.- 5 Unfertilized Ovule Culture..- 6 Incorporation of Haploids in Breeding for Superior Hybrids.- 7 Conclusions and Prospects.- 8 Protocol.- References.- II.4 Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Guan 18 - an Improved Variety Through Anther Culture.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Raising the Induction Frequency of Pollen Plantlets in Indica Rice.- 3 Breeding the High Quality Rice Variety Guan 18.- 4 Summary and Discussion.- References.- Trees.- 9 III.1 Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Unpollinated Ovule Culture.- 5 Prospects.- References.- III.2 Poplars (Populus spp.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Techniques for the Production of Haploids.- 3 Genetic Analysis of Haploids.- 4 Conclusions and Future Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- III.3 Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.): In Vitro lnduction of Androgenesis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Induction of Haploids in Vitro.- 3 Culture of Anthers.- 4 Culture of Androgenic Embryos.- 5 Practical Importance of Haploids in Breeding of New Varieties.- 6 Summary.- References.- III.4 Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): In Vitro Production of Haploid Plants.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Observations and Results.- 4 Morphological Characters.- 5 Cytological Observation.- 6 Summary and Prospe.- 7 Protocol.- References.- Medicinal Plants.- IV. 1 Digitalis spp.: In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Conclusions and Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- IV.2 Hyoscyamus spp.: Anther Culture Studies.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture: Methodology and Results.- 3 Conclusions.- 4 Protocol.- References.- Vegetables, Fruits, Miscellaneous.- V.1 Arabidopsis thaliana (L.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Conclusion and Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.2 Asparagus Anther Culture and Field Trials of Dihaploids and F1 Hybrids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Induction of Haploids Through Anther Culture.- 3 Production of Haploids from Polyembryonic Seeds.- 4 Chromosome Doubling of Haploid Plants.- 5 Incorporation of Haploids in Breeding - Release of New Varieties.- 6 Conclusions and Prospects.- 7 Protocol.- References.- V.3 Sugarbeet (Beta vulgari L.): In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 1 General Account.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Culture of Excised Ovules.- 4 Transfer of Haploids to Pot/Field.- 5 Protocol.- 6 Conclusions and Prospects.- References.- V.4 Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitala) and Brussels Sprout (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Culture of Isolated Pollen.- 4 Incorporation of Androgenetic Doubled Haploids in Breeding Programs and Release of New Varieties.- 5 Conclusion and Prospects.- 6 Protocol.- References.- V.5 Pepper (Capsicum spp.): In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Culture of Excised Anthers.- 4 Induced Continual Embryogenesis.- 5 Incorporation of Haploids in Breeding.- 6 Conclusion and Prospects.- 7 Protocol.- References.- V.6 Carrot (Daucus carota L.): In Vitro Production of Haploids and Field Trials.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Materials and Methods.- 3 Results t11401.- 4 Discussion and Conclusions.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.7 Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Incorporation of Haploids in Breeding: Release of New Varieties.- 5 Conclusions and Prospects.- 6 Protocol.- References.- V.8 Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook: In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Ovule Culture.- 4 Conclusions and Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.9 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 General Account.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Ovule Culture.- 4 Protocol.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- V.l0 Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.): Anther Culture and Induction of Androgenesis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Brief Review of In Vitro Anther Culture and Induction of Haploids in Tomato..- 3 Culture of Isolated Pollen.- 4 Analysis of Factors Affecting Anther Culture in Tomato.- 5 Regeneration of Entire Plants and Transfer to Soil.- 6 Variants, Genetic Analysis, and Stability.- 7 Conclusions and Prospects.- 8 Protocol.- References.- V.11 Alfalfa (Medicago spp.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Haploid Production Through Anther Culture.- 3 Incorporation in Breeding Programs.- 4 Conclusion.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.12 Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. TPt6): Culture of Excised Anthers and Unfertilized Ovules.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Material and Methods.- 3 Results.- 4 Discussion.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.13 Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.): Anther Culture Studies.- 1 General Account.- 2 In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 3 Use of Haploids in Breeding and the Release of New Varieties.- 4 Conclusion and Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- V.14 Wild Tomato (Solanum carolinense L.): Anther Culture and the Induction of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Anther Culture.- 3 Origin of Embryoids and Callus.- 4 Hormonal Control of Androgenesis.- 5 Androgenic Induction.- 6 Summary and Conclusions.- 7 Protocol.- References.- V.15 Wild Potato (Solanum chacoense Bitt.): In Vitro Production of Haploids.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Conclusion and Prospects.- 5 Protocol.- References.- Solanum phureja: Anther Cultureand the Induction of Haploids in a Cultivated Diploid Potato Species.- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Induction of Haploids.- 3 Anther Culture.- 4 Cluster Analysis of Anther-Derived Plants.- 5 Incorporation of Monoploids in Breeding; Release of New Varieties.- 6 Conclusion and Prospects.- 7 Protocol.- References.

ISBN: 9783540507987
ISBN-10: 3540507981
Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 549
Published: 19th July 1990
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 2.86