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Handbook of Terrestrial Heat-Flow Density Determination : with Guidelines and Recommendations of the International Heat Flow Commission - R. Haenel

Handbook of Terrestrial Heat-Flow Density Determination

with Guidelines and Recommendations of the International Heat Flow Commission

By: R. Haenel (Editor), L. Stegena (Editor), Ladislaus Rybach (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st August 1988
ISBN: 9789027725899
Number Of Pages: 486

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There comes a time in the affairs of every organization when we have to sit down and take stock of where we are and where we want to go. When the International Heat Flow Committee (as it was first called), IHFC, was formed in 1963 at the San Francisco International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics with Francis Birch as its first Chairman, the principal purpose was to stimulate work in the basic aspects of geothermics, particularly the measurement of terrestrial heat-flow density (HFD) in what were then the 'geothermally underdeveloped' areas of the world. In this, the IHFC was remarkably successful. By the beginning of the second decade of our existence, interest in the economic aspects of geothermics was increasing at a rapid pace and the IHFC served as a conduit for all aspects of geothermics and, moreover, became the group responsi- ble for collecting data on all types of HFD measurements. In all the tasks that are undertaken, the IHFC relies on the enthusiasm of its members and colleagues who devote much of their time to the important but unglamorous and personally unrewarding tasks that were asked of them, and we arc fortunate that our parent institutions are usually quite tolerant of the time spent by their employees on IHFC work.

1. Introduction.- 2. Fundamentals of Geothermics.- 2.1. Definitions, Standards, Conversions.- 2.2. Equations of Heat Conduction.- 2.2.1. Fourier Equations.- 2.2.2. Laplace and Poisson Equations.- 2.2.3. Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates.- 2.3. Equations of Heat Convection.- 2.3.1. Introductory Remarks.- 2.3.2. Analytical Solutions.- 2.3.3. Recognition of Water Movements.- 2.4. Numerical Methods.- 2.4.1. Finite-Difference Method (FDM).- 2.4.2. Finite-Element Method (FEM).- 2.5. Summary of Recommendations.- 2.6. References.- 3. Determination of Virgin Rock Temperatures.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Sensors for Measurements.- 3.2.1. Types of Sensor.- 3.2.2. Calibration of Field Sensors.- 3.3. Measurements of Subsurface Temperatures in Boreholes.- 3.3.1. Resistance Measuring Technique.- 3.3.2. Frequency Measuring Technique.- 3.3.3. Precautions for Maintaining Accuracy of Depth Measurement.- 3.3.4. Protection of the Sensing Head from a Hostile Environment.- 3.3.5. Continuous Logging of Temperature.- 3.4. Perturbations due to Convection.- 3.5. Data from Holes that are Thermally Perturbed by Drilling Fluids.- 3.5.1. Use of Bottom Hole Temperatures.- 3.5.2. Boreholes that are not in Equilibrium.- 3.6. Data from Boreholes with Hydraulically Driven Water Flows.- 3.7. Measurements of Temperatures in Lake and Oceanic Sediments.- 3.8. Measurements in Mines and Tunnels.- 3.9. Summary of Recommendations.- 3.10. References.- 4. Thermal Properties.- 4.1. Methods for Determining Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity.- 4.1.1. Introduction.- 4.1.2. Steady State Methods for Measuring Thermal Conductivity.- 4.1.3. Transient Techniques for Determining Conductivity and/or Diffusivity.- 4.1.4. Methods of Estimating Thermal Properties from Mineral Content.- 4.1.5. Sources of Experimental Error.- 4.1.6. Standards.- 4.1.7. Summary of Recommendations.- 4.1.8. References.- 4.2. Determination of Heat Production Rate.- 4.2.1. Definitions.- 4.2.2. Measurement Techniques.- 4.2.3. Calibration, Data Processing.- 4.2.4. Accuracy, Precision.- 4.2.5. Sensitivity, Detection Limits.- 4.2.6. Heat Production Rate of Various Rock Types.- 4.2.7. Indirect Methods for Determining Heat Production Rate.- 4.2.8. Summary of Recommendations.- 4.2.9. References.- 4.3. Opacity - The Concept of Radiative Thermal Conductivity.- 4.3.1. Introduction.- 4.3.2. Some Theory.- 4.3.3. Experimental Work on Opacity.- 4.3.4. Summary of Recommendations.- 4.3.5. References.- 5. Continental Heat-Flow Density.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Determining Continental Heat-Flow Density.- 5.2.1. Interval Method.- 5.2.2. Bullard Method.- 5.3. Reporting Uncertainties in Heat-Flow Density Determinations.- 5.4. Terrain Effects and Palaeoclimatic Corrections.- 5.4.1. Description of Effects - Steady State.- 5.4.2. Correction Techniques - Steady State.- 5.4.3. Transient Effects and Corrections.- 5.5. Groundwater Disturbances.- 5.6. Perturbations due to Free Convection.- 5.7. Summary of Recommendations.- 5.8. References.- 6. Oceanic Heat-Flow Density.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.1.1. Ridgecrest Problems.- 6.1.2. Continental Margin Problems.- 6.1.3. Old Ocean Basin Problems.- 6.2. Contemporary Instrumentation.- 6.3. Shipboard Operation.- 6.4. Data Reduction.- 6.4.1. Penetration Heating Extrapolation.- 6.4.2. In-situ Thermal Conductivity.- 6.4.3. Heat-Flow Density.- 6.4.4. Graphical Data Reduction.- 6.4.5. Long Time Asymptotic Relations.- 6.5. Sources of Errors.- 6.6. Summary of Recommendations.- 6.7. References.- 7. Geothermal Maps.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. General Statements.- 7.2.1. Computer Contouring.- 7.2.2. Visual Contouring.- 7.2.3. Test of Significance.- 7.2.4. Comparison of Individual Techniques.- 7.2.5. Corrections in Geothermal Mapping.- 7.3. Temperature, Temperature Gradient and Heat-Flow Density Maps.- 7.3.1. Temperature Maps.- 7.3.2. Maps of Vertical and Horizontal Temperature Gradient.- 7.3.3. Maps of Heat-Flow Density.- 7.4. Geothermal Resource and Reserve Representation.- 7.4.1. Objectives.- 7.4.2. Assessment and Mapping in Low Enthalpy Areas.- 7.4.3. Assessment and Mapping in High Enthalpy Areas.- 7.5. Summary of Recommendations.- 7.6. References.- 8. Crust and Mantle Geothermics.- 8.1. Thermal Regime of the Lithosphere.- 8.2. References.- 8.3. Downward Continuation.- 8.3.1. Introduction.- 8.3.2. Inverse Problems for Steady-State Heat Conduction Models.- 8.3.3. Linear Inverse Problems.- 8.3.4. Lateral Constraints in Linear Inverse Problems.- 8.3.5. Determination of Mantle Heat-Flow Density.- 8.3.6. Optimal Heat Source.- 8.4. References.- 9. Implications.- 9.1. Geodynamics.- 9.1.1. Introduction.- 9.1.2. Global Heat Output.- 9.1.3. Oceanic Heat-Flow Density.- 9.1.4. Continental Heat-Flow Density.- 9.1.5. Heat-Flow Density and Lithospheric Structures.- 9.1.6. Thermal Processes in Orogenic Zones.- 9.1.7. Thermal Process at Transform Faults.- 9.1.8. Geothermics of Sedimentary Basins.- 9.1.9. Heat-Flow Density Anomaly Associated with Intraplate Heat Sources.- 9.1.10. Temperature Distribution in the Earth.- 9.1.11. Thermal History of the Earth.- 9.1.12. Final Words.- 9.1.13. References.- 9.2. Thermal Exploration Methods.- 9.2.1. Introduction.- 9.2.2. Energy Exploration.- 9.2.3. Non-Energy Exploration.- 9.2.4. References.- 9.3. Palaeogeothermics.- 9.3.1. Introduction.- 9.3.2. Palaeogeothermics Based on Maturation of Organic Materials in Sediments.- 9.3.3. Homogenization Temperature Method (Microthermometry).- 9.3.4. Other methods.- 9.3.5. References.- 9.4. Engineering Applications.- 9.4.1. Introduction.- 9.4.2. Subsurface Temperature Distribution.- 9.4.3. Practical Aspects of Heat Transport by Convection.- 9.4.4. Permafrost.- 9.4.5. Manipulation of Subsurface Temperatures by Technical Installations.- 9.4.6. Storage of Heat Producing Wastes in the Underground.- 9.4.7. References.- 10. Appendix.- 10.1. Thermal Conductivity.- 10.2. Palaeotemperatures.- 10.3. References.- 10.4. Glossary of Symbols.- 10.5. Computer Programme to Section 4.3.3..- Author Index.

ISBN: 9789027725899
ISBN-10: 9027725896
Series: Solid Earth Sc
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 486
Published: 31st August 1988
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 17.15  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.84