Surgery for the treatment of deformities such as scoliosis carries a small but significant risk of damage to the spinal cord through inadvertent compression or interference with the blood supply. Electrophysiological techniques, principally those for recording sensory and motor evoked potentials, offer a means of continuously assessing the conduction of nerve signals up and down the spinal cord and hence the possibility of detecting a defect at an early stage, when the cause may be reversible. This form of monitoring is now accepted practice in many countries.
The main contributors to the Handbook are surgeons, neurophysiologists and anaesthetists at the forefront of research. From the United States, where practice has been most widespread, come the results of the first large-scale, multi-centre survey into monitoring methods and their effectiveness. The research papers forming the remainder of the text provide an indication of the high level of current interest and the likely direction of future developments.
`This book is recommended, for its first part, to beginners in neuromonitoring, orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons and, for its next three parts, to specialists in spinal cord monitoring.'
Acta Neurologica Belgica, 95:1, 1995
Invited Chapters.- 1 Somatosensory evoked potentials and their use for spinal cord monitoring.- 2 Human spinal cord potentials recorded from the epidural space.- 3 Indications for the use of evoked potentials in spinal surgery - review of the Nottingham experience and current use.- 4 Anaesthetic requirements for spinal surgery and effective cord monitoring.- 5 Application of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring to neurosurgery.- 6 Lessons from spinal cord monitoring.- 7 A multicentre survey of spinal cord monitoring outcome.- 8 Round Table Debate on International Spinal Cord Monitoring Practice.- Present status of spinal cord monitoring in Japan.- Spinal cord monitoring in the UK.- General perception of the usefulness and failings of spinal cord monitoring. The U.C.L. experience.- Somatosensory and spinal cord evoked potential studies in humans.- 9 Spinal cord evoked potentials in cervical and thoracic myelopathy.- 10 Spinal cord evoked potentials in spinal cord intermittent claudication.- 11 Somatosensory cerebral potentials evoked by paraspinal stimulation: an approach to spinal cord monitoring.- 12 The effect of changes in epidural temperature on spinal evoked potentials during scoliosis surgery.- 13 Threatened spinal cord damage due to Luque's wires.- 14 Comparison of common peroneal and posterior tibial nerve stimulation for routine spinal cord monitoring during surgical correction of scoliosis.- 15 An explanation of the high 'false-positive' rate of lower limb SEPs in descending aorta surgery.- 16 Decomposition of spinal cord evoked potentials into propagating and stationary components.- 17 An atlas of human spinal cord evoked potentials.- 18 A multichannel planar epidural electrode for spinal cord monitoring.- 19 Somatosensory evoked potentials (EPs) during anterior and posterior spinal surgery.- 20 Spinal cord monitoring with a new device for automated signal analysis.- 21 Evaluation of peroperative sensory evoked potentials recorded from nerve roots to the cervical epidural space during brachial plexus surgery.- 22 Automated spinal cord monitoring system with multimodal evoked potentials.- 23 Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials following CO2 laser stimulation in myelopathy.- 24 Level diagnosis of cervical myelopathy using somatosensory evoked potentials.- 25 Spinal cord monitoring during surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumours.- 26 Graded risk levels of somatosensory evoked potentials during scoliosis surgery.- 27 Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring with spino-spinal evoked potentials.- 28 Monitoring cortical evoked potentials (EPs) in operations on the cervical spine.- 29 A computer simulation of conduction block - conduction block induced augmentation and killed-end potential.- 30 Quantifying the SSEP - the area under the curve.- 31 The effects of propofol and nitrous oxide on median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials during fentanyl anaesthesia.- Studies of the human motor system.- 32 Effects of anaesthesia on the EEG - bispectral analysis correlates with movement.- 33 H-reflex spinal cord monitoring during vertebral column stabilization surgery.- 34 Central motor conduction time to upper versus lower extremities.- 35 Do neurogenic lesions of the spinal cord generate distinctive features of the epidurally recorded motor evoked potential?.- 36 Anaesthesia and the motor evoked potential.- 37 A method to assess the effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on the spinal motor evoked potential during spinal surgery.- 38 Defining reliable anaesthetic protocols for intraoperative monitoring of transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials.- 39 Transcranial magnetic stimulation for spinal cord monitoring.- 40 Evaluation of motor pathways in patients with cervical myelopathy by magnetic stimulation: pre-, intra-, and postoperative study.- 41 An attempt at noninvasive mapping of the human motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation.- 42 Separation of upper and lower extremity components of the cortico spinal MEP (D-wave) recorded at the cervical level.- 43 Changes in the corticospinal MEP (D-wave) during microsurgical removal of intramedullary spinal cord tumours; experience in 16 cases.- 44 Ketamine anaesthesia allows recording of muscle responses to magnetic cortical stimulation: an electrophysiological study in man.- 45 Long-term and quantitative assessment of spinal cord motor function by motor evoked potentials..- 46 Correlation of clinical, radiological and electrophysiological (MEP) findings in cervical myelopathy.- 47 Recording of myogenic motor evoked potentials (mMEP) under general anaesthesia using a train of transcranial electric stimuli.- 48 Electromyography of paravertebral muscles for evaluation of spinal disorders.- 49 Differential effect of isoflurane on motor evoked potentials elicited by transcortical electric or magnetic stimulation.- 50 Temporal summation and motor evoked potential spinal cord monitoring in man.- 51 Near maximal transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials during surgery.- 52 Rapid changes in killed-end corticospinal MEP in patients with acute spinal cord injury.- Animal studies.- 53 Electrophysiological phenomena recorded from spinal cord slice preparation in the adult rat.- 54 Transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded from the spinal cord in cats: normal waves and spinal cord injuries.- 55 In vitro animal study of the spinal cord evoked potentials.- 56 Comparison of spinal evoked potentials by transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation - a canine study.- 57 Comparison between descending segmental evoked spinal cord potentials and conductive evoked spinal cord potentials under acute spinal cord compression.- 58 Refractory period of motor evoked potentials and spinal cord evoked potentials in the cat.- 59 The effect of anaesthetic agents on descending spinal cord evoked potential and the compound muscle action potentials elicited by stimulation at the motor cortex and the spinal cord.- 60 Acute motor evoked potential changes following spinal cord ischaemia in the rat.- Index of Authors by Chapter Number.
Number Of Pages: 450
Published: 31st December 1993
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.21 x 16.36
Weight (kg): 0.78