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Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis : with Neutron Beams - Gabor L. Molnar

Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

with Neutron Beams

By: Gabor L. Molnar (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st November 2004
ISBN: 9781402013041
Number Of Pages: 423

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Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a unique, non-destructive nuclear analytical method with multi-element capabilities. It is most effective if intense neutron beams (especially cold beams) of nuclear reactors are used to induce the prompt gamma radiation. Based largely on the authors' pioneering research in cold neutron PGAA, the handbook describes the methodology in self-contained manner and reviews recent applications. The library of prompt gamma ray data and spectra for all natural elements, also provided on a CD-ROM supplement, is a unique aid to the practitioner. The level is understandable by a broad audience, which facilitates teaching and training.

The Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis is a comprehensive handbook written for those practising the method, wanting to implement it at a reactor facility, or just looking for a powerful non-destructive method of element analysis. The book is also useful for nuclear physics, chemistry and engineering scientists, scholars and graduate students interested in neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy and nuclear analytical methods.

Industry Reviews

From the reviews:

"This new handbook is the second one published on PGAA. ... has some very good attributes and should be useful to anyone in the field or thinking about using the numerous applications of PGAA. ... The appendix of reference data ... is also very informative, useful, and well-presented. The reading of the individual chapters flows very well, the figures are well illustrated, and the references are both historical in nature and very much up-to-date. This is an excellent addition to the PGAA community ... ." (Sheldon Landsberger, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127(39), 2005)

Prefacep. xi
Authorsp. xv
Principles of the PGAA method
Introductionp. 1
Fundamentals of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysisp. 2
Characteristics of neutronsp. 2
Fundamental processes occurring in PGAAp. 5
Radiative neutron capture, or (n,[gamma])-reactionp. 5
Radiative neutron capture of epithermal neutronsp. 5
Activationp. 6
Isomeric transition (IT)p. 6
Neutron capture with charged particle emissionp. 6
Neutron induced fission, or (n,f)-reactionp. 6
Elastic scatteringp. 6
Thermalizationp. 7
Inelastic scattering of fast neutrons, or (n,n') reactionp. 7
Nuclear reactions of fast neutronsp. 7
Secondary reactionsp. 8
Probabilities of nuclear reactionsp. 8
Energetics of the capture processp. 14
Reaction rate equationsp. 17
Thin sample approximationp. 18
"Black" sample approximationp. 19
Real samplesp. 19
Characteristics of PGAAp. 20
Analytical propertiesp. 20
Characterization of prompt gamma spectrap. 23
Dynamic range and detection limitp. 25
Referencesp. 28
Beams and Facilities
Basic parts of the PGAA systemp. 31
Neutron sourcesp. 31
Shaping and tailoring the neutron beamp. 34
Collimatorp. 34
Neutron filtersp. 34
Neutron guides and focusingp. 35
Straight guidesp. 36
Curved guidesp. 37
Supermirror guidesp. 38
Neutron lensesp. 38
Diffracted beamsp. 40
Neutron absorbers and shielding: materials issuesp. 40
Shutterp. 42
Beam tubep. 42
Sample holderp. 43
Beam stopp. 43
Neutron flux mapping and monitoringp. 43
Average neutron wavelength and beam temperaturep. 43
Monitoring and mappingp. 45
Additional shielding and background issuesp. 47
Facilitiesp. 49
Referencesp. 55
Samples and Standards
Sample considerationsp. 59
Sample sizep. 59
Sample shapep. 60
Neutron self-absorptionp. 61
Neutron scattering within the samplep. 62
Gamma-ray self-absorptionp. 65
Standards and blanksp. 66
Preparation of standardsp. 66
Reference materialsp. 67
Suitable blanksp. 68
Referencesp. 69
Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
Introductionp. 71
Basic instrumentationp. 72
Detectorsp. 72
Electronicsp. 74
Analog electronicsp. 74
Digital signal processingp. 75
Dead time and pile-upp. 76
Response function of germanium detectorsp. 78
Calibration proceduresp. 80
Energy resolutionp. 80
System nonlinearityp. 81
Detector efficiencyp. 83
Wide energy range efficiency calibrationp. 83
Intrinsic and geometric efficiencyp. 86
Geometry factor for collimated detectorsp. 87
Active and effective volume of the samplep. 89
Calibration sourcesp. 90
Optimization of detectionp. 91
Spectral backgroundp. 91
More sophisticated detection systemsp. 96
Compton suppressed and pair spectrometersp. 96
Composite germanium detectorsp. 99
Coincidence techniquesp. 99
Chopped-beam PGAAp. 101
Spectrum evaluationp. 104
Referencesp. 109
Quantitative Analysis
Introductionp. 113
Elemental identificationp. 114
Standardizationp. 116
Basics of standardizationp. 116
Relative standardizationp. 116
Internal standardizationp. 118
Sources of errorp. 127
Spectral interferencep. 127
Gamma-ray backgroundp. 129
Utilization of short-lived decay gamma raysp. 133
Referencesp. 134
Applications of PGAA with Neutron Beams
Introductionp. 137
Applications in Chemistryp. 138
Analysis of Certified Reference Materialsp. 138
Isotopic and Chemical Composition Studiesp. 139
Chemical Matrix Studiesp. 140
Industry-Related Applications and Materials Sciencep. 141
Related Reference Materialsp. 141
Ores, Metal Alloys, and Construction Materialsp. 142
Fossil Fuelsp. 143
Catalystsp. 144
Glass and Semiconductorsp. 145
Nuclear Technology Applicationsp. 145
Material Composition and Processingp. 146
Geology, Geochemistry, and Cosmochemistryp. 148
Geochemical Reference Material Analysisp. 148
Geologyp. 149
Cosmochemistryp. 151
Art and Archaeologyp. 152
Stone toolsp. 152
Ceramicsp. 153
Pigments and paintingsp. 154
Metal objectsp. 154
Food and Agriculturep. 156
Certification of Reference Materialsp. 156
Analysis of Foodp. 157
Environmental Studiesp. 158
Atmospheric Gases and Particlesp. 158
Water and Sediment Pollutionp. 159
Biologyp. 160
Biological Matrix Reference Materialsp. 160
Human and Animal Studiesp. 161
Medicinep. 162
Boron Neutron Capture Therapyp. 162
Other Medical Studiesp. 163
Referencesp. 164
Prompt Gamma-Ray Spectrum Catalog
Introductionp. 173
Evaluation of prompt gamma-ray datap. 174
Sources of the evaluationp. 174
Measurements in Budapestp. 174
Evaluationp. 175
Spectra and tables for elementsp. 176
Format of the elemental spectrap. 176
Format of the elemental tablesp. 179
Background spectrap. 186
Referencesp. 186
Spectra and tables for each elementp. 186
Appendices Reference Data
Fundamental constantsp. 365
Properties of chemical elementsp. 367
Isotopic datap. 371
Radioactive nuclidesp. 380
X-ray energies and intensitiesp. 390
Energy and intensity standardsp. 393
Thermal neutron capture datap. 400
Resonance parameters and Westcott g factorsp. 410
Neutron capture cross section of elementsp. 412
Indexp. 417
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402013041
ISBN-10: 1402013043
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 423
Published: 1st November 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.49
Weight (kg): 0.92

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