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Handbook of Micrometeorology : A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis - Xuhui Lee

Handbook of Micrometeorology

A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis

By: Xuhui Lee (Editor), William Massman (Editor), Beverly Law (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 22nd October 2004
ISBN: 9781402022647
Number Of Pages: 250

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The Handbook of Micrometeorology is the most up-to-date reference for micrometeorological issues and methods related to the eddy covariance technique for estimating mass and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. It is intended to provide micrometeorologists, ecosystem scientists, boundary-layer meteorologists, and students involved in micrometeorology with the state of science on measurement and analysis. The Handbook is the culmination of many detailed discussions of theory, analysis, and practical applications by the leading scientists in the field. It provides useful advice for bringing coherence to estimates of mass and energy exchange for understanding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global environmental change.

From the reviews:

"This `Handbook of Micrometeorology' manages to provide scientists and students in meteorology and fluid dynamics with the state of the art on the theory of the measurement and analysis of exchange of mass and energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere. ... this review on the theory of measuring the biosphere-atmosphere exchange by the eddy covariance technique ... should be available to all concerned with such measurements." (S. Emeis, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15 (2), 2006)

"This book provides a comprehensive review, of the many specific issues involved in taking eddy covariance measurements and analyzing and processing the data streams to produce flux estimates. ... it provides a unique resource for those who are interested in the details of this method and puts in context the difficulties involved in estimating land surface fluxes and the sources of uncertainty in the estimates. ... a valuable reference for those working in the area of characterizing land-atmosphere fluxes and their inherent uncertainty." (Steve Margulis, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, July, 2006)

Contributing Authorsp. ix
Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Averaging, Detrending, and Filtering of Eddy Covariance Time Seriesp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Averaging, Detrending, and Filtering Operationsp. 11
Time averagingp. 11
Linear detrendingp. 12
Filteringp. 14
Advantages and disadvantages of the three methods: Their effect on the spectrap. 17
Choosing an Averaging Period or Filter Time Constantp. 18
The Origin of Low Frequency Content in the Signalp. 22
Errors Associated with Averaging, Filtering and Detrendingp. 25
Averaging and Filtering in Complex Terrain: Special Considerationsp. 27
Conclusionsp. 29
Referencesp. 30
Coordinate Systems and Flux Bias Errorp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Theoryp. 35
Mass balance at a pointp. 35
Coordinate systemsp. 39
Advantages and disadvantages of Cartesian and stream-line coordinate systemsp. 43
Coordinate Systems for Point Measurementsp. 44
General considerationsp. 44
Instrument coordinatep. 45
Natural wind coordinatep. 47
Planar fit coordinatep. 48
Flux Bias Error due to Coordinate Tiltp. 50
Momentum flux biasp. 51
Scalar flux biasp. 51
Examples of Coordinate Tiltp. 53
Analysis of a Sample Datasetp. 55
Datasetp. 55
Resultsp. 56
Conclusionsp. 58
Appendix A: The Natural Wind Coordinate Systemp. 60
Appendix B: An Alternative Method for Rotation into the Planar Fit Coordinatep. 61
Acknowledgmentp. 64
Referencesp. 64
Uncertainty in Eddy Covariance Flux Estimates Resulting from Spectral Attenuationp. 67
General Issues Regarding Flux Attenuationp. 67
Sources of Uncertainties for the Transfer Function Methodp. 73
A general mathematical expression for spectra and cospectrap. 73
Analytical expression for estimating uncertaintyp. 75
Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Observed Datap. 77
Site description and data handling preliminaries: An AmeriFlux sitep. 77
Observed values of the cospectral parameters f[subscript x], [Delta]f[subscript x], [alpha], and [Delta alpha]p. 79
Cospectral (dis)similarity between sites: A CarboEurope flux sitep. 84
Departures from smooth cospectral shapesp. 87
Results for an open-path systemp. 88
Extension to a closed-path system and [Delta tau subscript e]p. 89
Discussion and caveats concerning low frequenciesp. 92
Summaryp. 94
Referencesp. 96
Low Frequency Atmospheric Transport and Surface Flux Measurementsp. 101
Introductionp. 101
Turbulence Structure, Eddy Sizes and Sampling Timesp. 102
Mixed-layer (outer-layer) timescalesp. 105
Surface-layer (inner-layer) timescalesp. 108
Empirical Evidence of Low Frequency Flux Transportp. 111
Wavelet spectral analyses of turbulent fluxes in Scotland and Amazoniap. 111
Low frequency transport and energy balancep. 114
Effect of Standard Flux Calculations on Low Frequency Flux Termsp. 115
Complicationsp. 116
Conclusionsp. 117
Referencesp. 117
Measurements of Trace Gas Fluxes in the Atmosphere Using Eddy Covariance: WPL Corrections Revisitedp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Conservation Equations for Moist Air and Trace Constituentsp. 120
Non-steady, Three Dimensional Flowp. 122
Steady, One-dimensional Horizontally Homogeneous Flowsp. 125
Fluxesp. 125
The vertical velocity of airp. 126
Practical Considerationsp. 127
Fluxes in terms of mixing ratios and concentrationsp. 127
Closed-path analyzersp. 127
Open-path gas analyzersp. 129
Advectionp. 130
Conclusionsp. 130
Referencesp. 131
Concerning the Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gas Fluxes with Open- and Closed-path Eddy Covariance System: The WPL Terms and Spectral Attenuationp. 133
Introductionp. 134
The WPL80 Terms and Spectral Attenuationp. 136
Open-path Systemsp. 138
Closed-path Systemsp. 140
General considerationsp. 140
Detection chamber transfer functionsp. 142
Pressure fluctuations within the detection chamberp. 147
Synthesis: Possible consequences for flux estimatesp. 150
Low frequency temperature fluctuationsp. 155
Summary and Conclusionsp. 156
Acknowledgmentp. 157
Referencesp. 158
Stationarity, Homogeneity, and Ergodicity in Canopy Turbulencep. 161
Introductionp. 161
Stationarity, Homogeneity, and the Ergodic Hypothesisp. 164
Stationarity, Homogeneity, and Ergodicity in Atmospheric Surface Layer Flowsp. 167
Homogeneity and Ergodicity in the Neutral and Unstable CSLp. 171
Stationarity and Ergodicity in the Stable CSLp. 174
Conclusionsp. 176
Acknowledgmentp. 178
Referencesp. 179
Post-field Data Quality Controlp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Quality Assurance and Quality Controlp. 182
Quality Control of Eddy Covariance Measurementsp. 184
Basic tests of the raw datap. 184
Statistical testsp. 187
Tests on fulfillment of theoretical requirementsp. 189
Overall quality flag systemp. 193
Site dependent quality controlp. 195
Further Problems of Quality Controlp. 198
Conclusionp. 202
Acknowledgmentp. 203
Referencesp. 203
Advection and Modelingp. 209
Introductionp. 209
General Remarks on Modeling and Advectionp. 211
Modelingp. 211
Advectionp. 212
The Turbulent Wind Field in a Tall Canopy on a Low Hillp. 218
Scalar Flow and Transport in a Tall Canopy on a Low Hillp. 226
Analytical modelp. 226
Numerical modelp. 233
Discussion and Conclusionp. 238
Appendix A: Model for Stomatal Conductancep. 240
Appendix B: Model for Photosynthetically Active Radiationp. 241
Acknowledgmentp. 241
Referencesp. 241
Indexp. 245
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402022647
ISBN-10: 1402022646
Series: Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 250
Published: 22nd October 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.6 x 16.4  x 2.0
Weight (kg): 0.59