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Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition, 2nd Edition : Principles, Technology and Applications :  Principles, Technology and Applications - Hugh O. Pierson

Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition, 2nd Edition : Principles, Technology and Applications

Principles, Technology and Applications

Hardcover Published: October 1999
ISBN: 9780815514329
Number Of Pages: 506

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Turn to this new second edition for an understanding of the latest advances in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD technology has recently grown at a rapid rate, and the number and scope of its applications and their impact on the market have increased considerably. The market is now estimated to be at least double that of a mere seven years ago when the first edition of this book was published. This second edition is an update with a considerably expanded and revised scope.

Plasma CVD and metallic-organic CVD (MOCVD) are two major factors in this rapid growth. Readers will find the latest data on both processes in this volume. Likewise, the book explains the growing importance of CVD in production of semiconductor and related applications.

The new edition also chronicles the recent expansion of a number of materials produced by CVD, including copper, tungsten, diamond, silicon carbide and silicon nitride, titanium nitride, and others.

Key Features:

- Practical approach in the handbook stresses CVD use in industry, such as semiconductors, optoelectronics, optics, cutting tools, refractory fibers, filters, and man others

- Coverage of the chemistry and deposition techniques of new materials produced by CVD as been greatly expanded in the book

- Special focus on the rapid growth of two major CVD processes: plasma CVD and metallo-organic CVD

- Emphasizes the broad expansion of the use of CVD processes in today's industry, showing the reasons for the growth and the different appli-cations that have developed in the last few years

".presents an objective and systematic assessment." - High Tech Ceramics News

Introduction and General Considerationsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Definition of CVDp. 2
Advantages and Limitations of CVDp. 3
Historical Perspectivep. 4
The Applications of CVDp. 5
Profile of the CVD Businessp. 6
CVD Researchp. 6
Internationalization of the CVD/PVD Businessp. 7
Captive Productionp. 7
The Cost of CVDp. 7
CVD Equipmentp. 8
CVD/PVD Integrationp. 8
Metallo-organic CVD and Plasma CVDp. 8
Book Objectivesp. 9
Background Referencesp. 9
Periodicalsp. 10
Conferencesp. 11
Referencesp. 11
Fundamentals of Chemical Vapor Depositionp. 12
Introductionp. 12
Theoretical Analysisp. 13
Thermodynamics of CVDp. 14
[Delta]G Calculations and Reaction Feasibilityp. 14
Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Computer Programsp. 17
Kinetics and Mass-Transport Mechanismsp. 20
Deposition Sequencep. 20
Deposition in a CVD Flow Reactorp. 22
Boundary Layerp. 23
Gas Velocityp. 24
Temperaturep. 25
Reactant-Gas Concentrationp. 26
Rate-Limiting Stepsp. 27
Surface-Reaction Kineticsp. 27
Mass Transportp. 28
Control of Limiting Stepp. 28
Pressure as Rate-Limiting Factorp. 29
Mathematical Expressions of the Kinetics of CVDp. 31
Growth Mechanism and Structure of Depositp. 31
Deposition Mechanism and Epitaxyp. 32
Epitaxyp. 32
Gas Phase Precipitationp. 33
Thermal Expansionp. 34
Structure and Morphology of CVD Materialsp. 35
Control of CVD Microstructurep. 39
Referencesp. 41
The Chemistry of CVDp. 44
Categories of CVD Reactionsp. 44
Thermal-Decomposition (or Pyrolysis) Reactionsp. 44
Hydrogen Reductionp. 45
Coreductionp. 46
Metal Reduction of the Halidesp. 47
Oxidation and Hydrolysis Reactionsp. 48
CVD Precursorsp. 49
Halide Precursorsp. 50
Halogensp. 50
Halide Formation or Halogenationp. 51
Halide Propertiesp. 52
Metal-Carbonyl Precursorsp. 53
Characteristics of the Carbonylsp. 53
Carbonyl Preparationp. 55
Metal Carbonyl Complexesp. 55
Hydride Precursorsp. 57
Referencesp. 59
Metallo-Organic CVD (MOCVD)p. 60
Introductionp. 60
MOCVD Process and Equipmentp. 61
MOCVD Precursors: Alkyl, Alicyclic, and Aryl Compoundsp. 62
Alkylsp. 63
Alicyclic Compoundsp. 63
Aryl Compoundsp. 64
Acetylacetonate Compoundsp. 67
MOCVD Reactions for the Deposition of Metalsp. 69
Aluminump. 69
Cadmiump. 69
Chromiump. 69
Copperp. 69
Goldp. 70
Nickelp. 70
Platinump. 70
Iridiump. 70
Rhodiump. 71
Tinp. 71
Titaniump. 71
MOCVD Reactions for the Deposition of Carbides and Nitridesp. 71
Chromium Carbidep. 71
Titanium Carbidep. 72
Aluminum Nitridep. 72
Boron Nitridep. 72
Silicon Nitridep. 72
Titanium Nitridep. 73
MOCVD Reactions for the Deposition of Oxidesp. 73
Aluminum Oxidep. 73
Chromium Oxidep. 73
Hafnium Oxidep. 73
Iron Oxidep. 74
Silicon Dioxidep. 74
Tantalum Oxidep. 74
Tin Oxidep. 74
Titanium Oxidep. 75
Zinc Oxidep. 75
Zirconium Oxidep. 75
Titanatesp. 75
Superconductorsp. 76
MOCVD Reactions for the Deposition of III-V and II-VI Compoundsp. 76
III-V Compoundsp. 76
II-VI Compoundsp. 76
General Applications of MOCVDp. 76
Referencesp. 77
CVD Processes and Equipmentp. 84
Introductionp. 84
CVD Processesp. 84
CVD Coatingsp. 85
Composite Nature of Coatingsp. 85
Closed and Open Reactorp. 86
Closed Reactorp. 86
Open Reactorp. 86
Reactant Supplyp. 87
Reactant Transportp. 87
Reactant Purity and Contaminationp. 92
Thermal CVD: Deposition System and Reactor Designp. 93
Heating Methodsp. 93
Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Reactorsp. 98
Exhaust and By-Product Disposalp. 100
Laser and Photo CVDp. 102
Laser CVDp. 102
Photo CVDp. 104
Chemical Vapor Infil Tration (CVI)p. 105
Fluidized-Bed CVDp. 107
Plasma CVDp. 110
Principles of Plasma Depositionp. 110
Types of Plasmap. 111
Glow-Discharge (Microwave) Plasmap. 112
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR)p. 113
RF Plasmap. 115
Arc Plasmap. 115
Materials Deposited by Plasma CVDp. 120
Referencesp. 120
The CVD of Metalsp. 123
Introductionp. 123
Aluminump. 124
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 124
CVD Reactionsp. 125
Applicationsp. 126
Berylliump. 126
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 126
CVD Reactionsp. 127
Applicationsp. 127
Chromiump. 127
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 127
CVD Reactionsp. 127
Applicationsp. 129
Copperp. 129
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 129
CVD Reactionsp. 130
Applicationsp. 130
Goldp. 130
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 130
CVD Reactionsp. 131
Applicationsp. 131
Molybdenump. 132
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 132
CVD Reactionsp. 132
Applicationsp. 134
Nickelp. 134
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 134
CVD Reactionsp. 135
Applicationsp. 136
Niobium (Columbium)p. 136
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 136
CVD Reactionsp. 137
Applicationsp. 138
Platinum and Platinum Group Metalsp. 138
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 138
Platinump. 138
Applicationsp. 139
Iridiump. 140
Applicationsp. 140
Rhodium and Rutheniump. 140
Rheniump. 141
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 141
CVD Reactionsp. 142
Applicationsp. 143
Tantalump. 144
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 144
CVD Reactionsp. 144
Applicationsp. 145
Titaniump. 145
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 145
CVD Reactionsp. 146
Applicationsp. 147
Tungstenp. 147
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 147
CVD Reactionsp. 148
Applicationsp. 150
Other Metalsp. 150
Cadmiump. 150
Ironp. 151
Tinp. 151
Intermetallicsp. 151
Titanium Aluminidesp. 152
Ferro-Nickelp. 152
Nickel-Chromiump. 153
Tungsten-Thoriump. 153
Niobium-Germaniump. 153
Referencesp. 153
The CVD of the Allotropes of Carbonp. 161
The Allotropes of Carbonp. 161
The CVD of Graphitep. 162
Structure of Graphitep. 162
Properties of CVD Graphitep. 162
The CVD of Graphitep. 163
Deposition Mechanismp. 165
Structural Features of CVD Graphitep. 165
Effects of Deposition Parametersp. 167
Plasma-CVD of Graphitep. 168
Fluidized-Bed CVD of Graphitep. 169
Applications of CVD Graphitep. 169
The CVD of Diamondp. 170
The Structure of Diamondp. 170
Characteristics and Properties of Diamondp. 170
Deposition Mechanism of CVD Diamondp. 171
CVD Processes for Diamond: Plasma Depositionp. 175
Thermal CVD (Hot Filament)p. 179
Applications of CVD Diamondp. 180
The CVD of Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC)p. 182
Structure of DLCp. 182
Graphite, Diamond, and DLCp. 182
Summary of the Properties of DLCp. 183
The CVD of DLCp. 184
Applications of DLCp. 186
Referencesp. 187
The CVD of Non-Metallic Elementsp. 193
Introductionp. 193
The CVD of Boronp. 193
Properties of Boronp. 193
CVD Reactionsp. 194
Applicationsp. 195
The CVD of Siliconp. 195
Characteristics and Properties of Siliconp. 195
CVD Reactionsp. 197
Applications of CVD Siliconp. 199
The CVD of Germaniump. 200
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 200
CVD Reactionsp. 201
Applicationsp. 202
Referencesp. 202
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Carbidesp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Refractory-Metal (Interstitial) Carbidesp. 208
Non-Metallic (Covalent) Carbidesp. 209
The CVD of Boron Carbidep. 210
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 210
CVD Reactionsp. 212
Applicationsp. 212
The CVD of Chromium Carbidep. 213
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 213
CVD Reactionsp. 213
Applicationsp. 213
The CVD of Hafnium Carbidep. 215
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 215
CVD Reactionsp. 215
Applicationsp. 217
The CVD of Niobium Carbidep. 217
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 217
CVD Reactionsp. 218
Applicationsp. 219
The CVD of Silicon Carbidep. 219
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 219
CVD Reactionsp. 221
Applicationsp. 222
The CVD of Tantalum Carbidep. 223
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 223
CVD Reactionsp. 225
Applicationsp. 225
The CVD of Titanium Carbidep. 225
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 225
CVD Reactionsp. 227
Applicationsp. 228
The CVD of Tungsten Carbidep. 229
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 229
CVD Reactionsp. 231
Applicationsp. 231
The CVD of Zirconium Carbidep. 232
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 232
CVD Reactionsp. 232
Applicationsp. 234
The CVD of Miscellaneous Carbidesp. 234
Referencesp. 235
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Nitridesp. 241
General Characteristics of Nitridesp. 241
Refractory-Metal (Interstitial) Nitridesp. 241
Covalent Nitridesp. 242
The CVD of Aluminum Nitridep. 243
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 243
CVD Reactionsp. 245
Applicationsp. 246
The CVD of Hexagonal Boron Nitridep. 246
Characteristics and Properties of h-BNp. 246
CVD Reactionsp. 248
Applicationsp. 249
The CVD of Cubic Boron Nitridep. 250
Characteristics and Properties of c-BNp. 250
CVD Reactionsp. 251
Other Boron Nitride Structuresp. 251
The CVD of Hafnium Nitridep. 251
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 251
CVD Reactionsp. 253
Applicationsp. 253
The CVD of Niobium Nitridep. 254
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 254
CVD Reactionsp. 255
Applicationsp. 255
The CVD of Silicon Nitridep. 255
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 255
CVD Reactionsp. 256
Applicationsp. 258
The CVD of Titanium Nitridep. 259
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 259
CVD Reactionsp. 261
Applicationsp. 263
The CVD of Titanium Carbonitridep. 263
The CVD of Other Nitridesp. 264
Referencesp. 264
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Oxidesp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Aluminum Oxidep. 272
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 272
CVD Reactionsp. 272
Applicationsp. 274
Chromium Oxidep. 274
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 274
CVD Reactionsp. 275
Applicationsp. 275
Hafnium Oxidep. 276
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 276
CVD Reactionsp. 276
Applicationsp. 277
Silicon Dioxidep. 278
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 278
CVD Reactionsp. 279
Applicationsp. 281
Tantalum Oxidep. 281
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 281
CVD Reactionsp. 282
Applicationsp. 283
Tin Oxidep. 283
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 283
CVD Reactionsp. 284
Applicationsp. 284
Titanium Oxidep. 285
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 285
CVD Reactionsp. 285
Applicationsp. 286
Zirconium Oxidep. 287
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 287
CVD Reactionsp. 288
Applicationsp. 289
Other Oxidesp. 289
Iron Oxidep. 290
Zinc Oxidep. 290
Mixed Oxides and Glassesp. 291
Titanatesp. 291
Magnesia Aluminate (Spinel)p. 292
Glassesp. 292
Oxide Superconductorsp. 293
Referencesp. 293
The CVD of Ceramic Materials: Borides, Silicides, III-V Compounds and II-VI Compounds (Chalcogenides)p. 299
Boridesp. 299
General Characteristics and Propertiesp. 299
Boridingp. 300
Direct Boride Depositionp. 301
Applicationsp. 303
Silicidesp. 303
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 303
Siliconizingp. 304
Molybdenum Disilicidep. 305
Applicationsp. 306
Tantalum Disilicidep. 306
Applicationsp. 306
Titanium Disilicidep. 307
Applicationsp. 307
Tungsten Disilicidep. 308
Applicationsp. 308
Other Silicidesp. 309
III-V Compoundsp. 309
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 309
CVD Reactionsp. 311
Applicationsp. 312
II-VI Compounds (Chalcogenides)p. 312
Characteristics and Propertiesp. 312
CVD Reactionsp. 314
Applicationsp. 315
Referencesp. 315
CVD in Electronic Applications: Semiconductorsp. 321
Introductionp. 321
Electronic Functions and Systemsp. 322
Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulatorsp. 323
Categories of Electronic Devicesp. 324
Modern Circuit Characteristicsp. 324
Three-Dimensional Structuresp. 325
Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS)p. 326
Thermal Budgetp. 327
CVD In Electronic Technologyp. 328
Siliconp. 328
Comparison of Propertiesp. 328
Single Crystal Processingp. 330
Epitaxial Siliconp. 330
Polysiliconp. 331
Germaniump. 332
III-V And II-VI Compoundsp. 332
General Characteristicsp. 332
Gallium Arsenidep. 333
Other Gallium Compoundsp. 333
Silicon Carbidep. 335
General Characteristicsp. 335
Advantages of Silicon Carbidep. 336
Thermal Stabilityp. 336
Diamondp. 337
General Characteristicsp. 337
Advantages of Semiconductor Diamondp. 338
Drawbacks of Diamond Semiconductorp. 338
Potential Applicationsp. 339
Processing Equipment for CVD Electronic Materialsp. 339
Referencesp. 340
CVD in Electronic Applications: Conductors, Insulators, and Diffusion Barriersp. 343
Introductionp. 343
The CVD of Electrical Conductorsp. 343
Step Coverage and Conformityp. 343
Aluminum and Electromigrationp. 345
Refractory Metalsp. 345
Copperp. 347
Silicidesp. 347
Trends in Metallizationp. 348
The CVD of Electrical Insulators (Dielectrics)p. 349
Silicon Dioxide (SiO[subscript 2])p. 349
Silicon Nitridep. 350
The CVD of Substrates (Heat Sinks)p. 350
The Need for Heat Dissipationp. 350
Heat-Sink Materialsp. 351
Diamond Heat-Sinksp. 351
The CVD of Diffusion Barriersp. 352
Principle of Diffusion Barriersp. 352
Diffusion Barrier Materialsp. 353
Example of Diffusion Barrierp. 354
The CVD of Superconductorsp. 355
Referencesp. 356
CVD in Optoelectronic and Ferroelectric Applicationsp. 360
CVD in Optoelectronicsp. 360
Optoelectronic Materialsp. 362
Critical Propertiesp. 362
Siliconp. 362
III-V and II-VI Compoundsp. 362
Optoelectronic CVD Applicationsp. 363
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)p. 365
Light Detectorsp. 366
Semiconductor Lasersp. 367
MOCVD and MBEp. 368
CVD in Photovoltaicp. 369
Photovoltaic Principle and Operationp. 369
Photovoltaic Materials and Processingp. 370
Photovoltaic Applicationsp. 373
CVD in Ferroelectricityp. 374
CVD Ferroelectric Materialsp. 375
Applications of Ferroelectric CVD Materialsp. 376
Referencesp. 376
CVD in Optical Applicationsp. 379
Introductionp. 379
Optical Characteristicsp. 380
Optical Materials Produced by CVDp. 381
Optical Applications of CVDp. 382
Antireflection Coatingsp. 382
Reflective Coatingsp. 383
Heat and Light Separation Coatingsp. 383
Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatingsp. 386
Architectural-Glass Coatingp. 387
Infrared Opticsp. 390
Trends in CVD Optical Applicationsp. 392
CVD in Optical-Fiber Processingp. 393
Optical Considerationsp. 393
CVD Production of Optical Fibersp. 396
Infrared (IR) Transmissionp. 399
Referencesp. 400
CVD in Wear- and Corrosion-Resistant Applicationsp. 402
Introductionp. 402
Wear Mechanismsp. 403
Mechanical Wearp. 404
Corrosive Wearp. 405
Temperature Effectsp. 405
CVD Materials for Wear- and Corrosion-Resistancep. 406
Wear- and Corrosion-Resistance Materialsp. 406
Wear and Corrosion Resistance Applications of CVD Coatingsp. 410
CVD in Corrosion-Resistant Applicationsp. 412
CVD Metals for Corrosion Resistance Applicationsp. 413
CVD Borides for Corrosion-Resistance Applicationsp. 415
CVD Carbides for Corrosion-Resistance Applicationsp. 416
CVD Nitrides for Corrosion-Resistant Applicationsp. 417
CVD Oxides for Corrosion-Resistance Applicationsp. 418
CVD Silicides for Corrosion-Resistance Applicationsp. 419
Oxidation Protection of Carbon-Carbon Compositesp. 419
Decorative Applications of CVDp. 422
Nuclear Applications of CVDp. 422
Nuclear-Fission Applicationsp. 422
Nuclear Fusion Applicationsp. 422
Biomedical Applications of CVDp. 423
Referencesp. 425
CVD in Cutting-Tool Applicationsp. 428
Introductionp. 428
Cutting-Tool Requirementsp. 429
Categories of Machiningp. 429
Wear and Failure Mechanismsp. 430
Coating Processes and Substrate Interactionp. 430
Cutting-Tool Materials (Substrate)p. 432
High-Speed Tool Steelp. 432
Cemented-Carbide Cutting Toolsp. 433
Ceramic Cutting Toolsp. 433
Diamond Cutting Toolsp. 434
Cubic Boron Nitride (c-BN) Cutting Toolsp. 435
Cutting-Tool Materials (Coatings)p. 436
Titanium Compoundsp. 436
Diamond and DLC Coatingsp. 438
Referencesp. 438
CVD in Fiber, Powder, and Monolithic Applicationsp. 440
Introductionp. 440
CVD in Fiber Applicationsp. 440
Competing Processesp. 441
Materials and Applications of Inorganic Fibersp. 441
The CVD Process for Fiber Productionp. 443
The CVD of Boron Fibersp. 444
The CVD of Silicon-Carbide Fibersp. 446
Other Refractory-Fiber Materialsp. 448
CVD Coatings for Fibersp. 449
Whiskersp. 450
CVD in Powder Applicationsp. 451
Ceramic-Powder Productionp. 451
CVD Process for Ceramic-Powder Productionp. 451
CVD Metal Powdersp. 453
Coated Powders by CVDp. 454
CVD in Monolithic and Composite Applicationsp. 454
Graphite, Carbon-Carbon, and Boron Nitride CVD Structuresp. 455
Monolithic Metallic Structuresp. 456
CVD Ceramic Compositesp. 457
Referencesp. 458
Conversion Guidep. 462
Alternative Processes for Thin-Film Deposition and Surface Modificationp. 466
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)p. 466
Evaporationp. 467
Principle of Evaporationp. 467
Reactive Evaporationp. 467
Plasma Evaporationp. 468
Molecular Beam Epitaxyp. 468
Typical Applications of Evaporationp. 468
Sputteringp. 469
Principle of Sputteringp. 469
Reactive Sputteringp. 470
Sputtering Techniquesp. 470
Examples of Sputtered Filmsp. 471
Ion Platingp. 471
Thermal Sprayp. 472
Principle of Thermal Sprayp. 472
Heat Sourcesp. 472
Reactive Thermal Sprayp. 473
Typical Applicationsp. 473
Solgelp. 473
Referencesp. 474
Indexp. 475
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780815514329
ISBN-10: 0815514328
Series: Materials Science and Process Technology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 506
Published: October 1999
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.91 x 15.19  x 2.87
Weight (kg): 0.84
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised