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Guidelines for Sensory Analysis in Food Product Development and Quality Control - Roland P. Carpenter

Guidelines for Sensory Analysis in Food Product Development and Quality Control

Paperback Published: January 2000
ISBN: 9780834216426
Number Of Pages: 210

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The food industry needs to systematize the subjective discipline of sensory analysis for effective new product development, market research, and quality assurance. This book, authored by a panel of industrial experts from one of the world's leading centers of expertise on the subject, follows a logical sequence of questions that might be asked before undertaking sensory analysis. With a spiral, lay-flat binding, full descriptions of concepts, tests, and case studies, this book will be of value to those in the food and drink industry concerned with monitoring and controlling product quality, product development, market research and marketing.

Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Introductionp. xix
Acknowledgementsp. xxvii
What Is Sensory Analysis Used for?p. 1
Providing Answers to Practical Questionsp. 1
Specifications and Quality Controlp. 2
Shelf-Life Studiesp. 3
Taint Potentialp. 5
Product Matchingp. 7
Product Reformulationp. 8
Product Mappingp. 9
Product Acceptabilityp. 11
The Relationship of Physiology and Psychology to Sensory Analysisp. 13
Introductionp. 13
What Role Do the Senses Play?p. 14
Sightp. 14
Smellp. 17
Tastep. 19
How Do the Senses Interact?p. 21
Texturep. 21
Flavorp. 25
Thresholds and Sensitivityp. 27
Individual Differencesp. 28
The Importance of Individual Differencesp. 28
Genderp. 29
Agep. 29
Physiological Statep. 29
Geneticsp. 30
Psychologyp. 30
Perception--The Link with the Sensesp. 31
How Is Psychology Linked with Physiology?p. 31
Which Psychological Factors May Affect Sensory Results?p. 31
Biases and Errorsp. 31
Personality and Attitudep. 34
How To Use Sensory Analysis To Meet Your Objectivep. 35
Formulating the Objectivep. 35
The Key Question To Be Answeredp. 35
Understanding the Client's Needp. 36
Decisions about Datap. 36
Tests Used To Achieve the Objectivep. 41
Discrimination or Difference Testsp. 41
Paired Comparison (Difference) Testp. 42
Duo-Trio Testp. 42
Difference from Control Testp. 42
Triangle Testp. 43
Two-Out-of-Five Testp. 44
Ranking Testp. 44
Magnitude Estimationp. 45
Descriptive Testsp. 46
Consensus Profilingp. 46
Descriptive Profilingp. 47
Free-Choice Profilingp. 48
Acceptance Testsp. 49
Hedonic Ratingp. 50
Paired Comparison (Preference) Testp. 51
Repeat Paired Comparison (Preference) Testp. 52
Multi-Sample Ranking for Preferencep. 52
Principles of Questionnaire Designp. 53
The Products for Sensory Analysisp. 59
The Nature of the Productsp. 59
What Are the Products To Be Assessed?p. 59
Special Practical Difficultiesp. 62
The Number of Productsp. 67
How Many Product Types Are There?p. 67
Is It Necessary To Evaluate Every Product?p. 68
How Much Product Is Required?p. 68
The Assessment of the Productsp. 69
How Is the Product To Be Assessed?p. 69
What Are the Practical Limits When Preparing Products for Sensory Analysis?p. 69
How Many Products Should Be Assessed in One Sitting?p. 70
Who Are the Right People for Sensory Analysis?p. 71
What Type of Person Is Required?p. 71
Sensory Analyst or Panel Leaderp. 71
Sensory Assessorsp. 72
Selecting People for Specific Tasksp. 75
Quality Controlp. 75
Taint Testsp. 76
Discrimination or Difference Testsp. 76
Descriptive Testsp. 76
Acceptance Testsp. 77
How Many Assessors?p. 78
How To Select Assessorsp. 80
Selection on Abilityp. 80
Criteria for Selectionp. 82
How To Train Assessorsp. 82
General Trainingp. 82
Training For Specific Tasksp. 83
Health and Welfare of Assessorsp. 88
Introductionp. 88
Possible Sources of Risk: The Equipmentp. 89
Possible Sources of Risk: The Productsp. 89
Possible Sources of Risk: The Test Environmentp. 90
General Procedures and Protective Facilitiesp. 90
Special Procedures within the Test Protocolp. 91
A Practical Examplep. 91
Experimental Design and Data Analysisp. 95
Experimental Designp. 95
What Is Experimental Design?p. 95
What Factors Should Be Taken into Account in the Experimental Design?p. 97
Data Analysisp. 106
What Statistical Methods Are Available?p. 107
How To Decide If the Data Are Normally Distributedp. 108
Which Methods Are Appropriate for Discrimination Tests?p. 109
Which Methods Are Appropriate for Descriptive Tests?p. 109
Which Methods Are Appropriate for Acceptance Tests?p. 115
Which Methods Are Appropriate for Relating Data?p. 117
Hypothesis Testingp. 119
Points To Consider in Choosing a Statistical Packagep. 120
Reporting and Recordingp. 121
Style and Contentp. 121
Background and Objectivesp. 122
Methodsp. 123
Analysis of Datap. 124
Presentation of Resultsp. 124
Interpretation and Discussion of Resultsp. 126
Conclusionsp. 126
Recommendationsp. 126
Retaining Recordsp. 127
Putting Sensory Analysis into Practicep. 129
Resourcesp. 129
Are Suitable Equipment and Facilities Available?p. 129
What Are the Requirements of the Test Area?p. 129
What Equipment Will Be Needed During Sample Assessment?p. 131
Will Assessors Be Available for the Test?p. 131
Practical Constraintsp. 131
Product Constraints: Availability and Agingp. 131
Time Constraintsp. 132
Cost Constraintsp. 132
Organizing The Sensory Testp. 133
Assessor Briefing and Motivationp. 134
Do the Assessors Know What To Do?p. 134
Do Assessors Receive Feedback on the Test Results?p. 134
Should Assessors Receive Any Special Incentives or Rewards?p. 135
Setting Standards for Sensory Panelsp. 135
Product Standards in Discrimination Testingp. 136
Standard Products in Descriptive Testsp. 136
Standard Products in Acceptance Testsp. 137
Monitoring Performance of Assessors and the Panelp. 137
Monitoring Performance Using Product Standardsp. 138
Comparison with Other Assessorsp. 139
Comparison with Other Panels: Ring Testsp. 140
Case History: Specification and Quality Controlp. 143
Backgroundp. 143
Question: What Is the Target Specification and How Can It Be Defined?p. 143
Method and Approachesp. 143
Implementationp. 144
Case History: Shelf-Life Studiesp. 145
Backgroundp. 145
Question: How Long Can a Product Be Stored before the Sensory Characteristics Change? How Do Products Change with Storage?p. 145
Methods and Approachesp. 145
Analysis and Presentation of Resultsp. 146
Case History: Taint Investigationp. 149
Backgroundp. 149
Methodsp. 150
Resultsp. 150
Case History: Taint Preventionp. 153
Backgroundp. 153
Methodsp. 153
Resultsp. 154
Case History: Mapping of Coffee Productsp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Aimsp. 157
Descriptive Analysis of Coffeep. 158
Implications for Product Matching/Mappingp. 162
Consumer Preferences for Coffeep. 163
Relating Consumer Preferences to Sensory Attributesp. 166
Implications for Product Matching/Mappingp. 167
Case History: Quality Control in Product Batchingp. 169
Backgroundp. 169
Methods and Approachesp. 169
Recommendationsp. 170
Case History: Graphical Methods for Monitoring Profile Panel Performancep. 171
Introductionp. 171
Methods and Resultsp. 171
Plot of Assessor [times] Product Interactionp. 172
Plot of Replicate [times] Product Interaction Plot for an Individual Assessorp. 173
Conclusionsp. 174
Appendixesp. 177
Some Useful Tables for Sensory Testsp. 177
Glossary of Terms Used in Sensory Analysisp. 181
Some Useful Contactsp. 189
Bibliographyp. 195
Indexp. 201
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780834216426
ISBN-10: 0834216426
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 210
Published: January 2000
Publisher: Aspen Publishers Inc.,U.S.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.18 x 17.53  x 2.46
Weight (kg): 0.52
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised