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Geodesy - Wolfgang Torge

Hardcover Published: 30th May 2001
ISBN: 9783110170726
Number Of Pages: 431
For Ages: 18 - 21 years old

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The third edition of this well-known textbook, first published in 1980, has been completely revised in order to adequately reflect the drastic changes which occured in the field of geodesy in the last twenty years. Reference systems are now well established by space techniques, which dominate positioning and gravity field determination. Terrestrial techniques still play an important role at local and regional applications, whereby remarkable progress has been made with respect to automatic data aquisition. Evaluation methods are now three-dimensional in principle, and have to take the gravity field into account. Geodetic control networks follow these developments, with far-reaching consequences for geodetic practice. Finally, the increased accuracy of geodetic products and high data rates have significantly increased the contributions of geodesy to geodynamics research, thus strengthening the role of geodesy within the geosciences. The present state of geodesy is illustrated by recent examples of instruments and results. An extensive reference list supports further studies.

Industry Reviews

"There is sufficient new material in this edition to prompt anyone seriously interested in the subject to consider purchasing it."
L. M. Sebert in: Geomatica 1/2002

"Dieses Buch wird allen Geodasie-Studenten und den Berufskollegen, die mit geodatischen Fragestellungen konfrontiert werden, zur Anschaffung warmstens empfohlen."
B. Witte in: Flachenmanagement und Bodenordnung

"Es ist das bisher einzige Textbuch mit einem aktuellen √úberblick uber die Geometrische und Physikalische Geodasie, uber geodatische Referenzsysteme und uber die zeitabhangigen geodatischen Konzeptionen im Zeitalter der geodatischen 'NanoScience'. Der Autor ist zum neuesten Werk zu begluckwunschen: Moge eine weitere Verbreitung ein minimaler Dank fur die jahrzehntelange harte Arbeit am neuen Text sein. Als Leitfaden fur die eigene Arbeit benotigt jeder Geodat und Geoinformatiker dieses hoch willkommene Textbuch."
E. W. Grafarend in: Zeitschrift fur Vermessungswesen 6/2001

"Deshalb konnen wir das Buch als Lehr- und Handbuch fur Studenten, Hochschullehrer, wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter, Promovierende, sogar Diplomingenieure in der Praxis, fur jede, die in einem einzigen Band ein klares Bild uber die gesamte (hohere) Geodasie und ihrer Lage in dem Prozess des naturwissenschaflichen Erkennens der Erde bekommen mochten wohl begrundet empfehlen."
Peter Biro in: Allgemeine Vermessungsnachrichten 1/2006

Introductionp. 1
Definition of Geodesyp. 1
The Problem of Geodesyp. 2
Historical Development of Geodesyp. 4
The Spherical Earth Modelp. 4
The Ellipsoidal Earth Modelp. 7
The Geoid, Arc Measurements and National Geodetic Surveysp. 10
Three-dimensional Geodesyp. 12
Four-dimensional Geodesyp. 13
Organization of Geodesy, Literaturep. 13
National Organizationsp. 13
International Collaborationp. 14
Literaturep. 15
Reference Systemsp. 18
Basic Units and Fundamental Constantsp. 18
Time Systemsp. 20
Atomic Time, Dynamical Timep. 20
Sidereal and Universal Timep. 21
International Earth Rotation Servicep. 24
Celestial Reference Systemp. 25
Equatorial System of Spherical Astronomyp. 26
Precession and Nutationp. 28
International Celestial Reference Framep. 30
Terrestrial Reference Systemp. 31
Global Earth-Fixed Geocentric Systemp. 32
Polar Motion, Length of Day, Geocenter Variationsp. 33
International Terrestrial Reference Framep. 36
Gravity Field Related Reference Systemsp. 38
Orientation of the Local Verticalp. 38
Local Astronomic Systemsp. 39
The Gravity Field of the Earthp. 45
Fundamentals of Gravity Field Theoryp. 45
Gravitation, Gravitational Potentialp. 45
Gravitation of a Spherically Symmetric Earthp. 48
Properties of the Gravitational Potentialp. 50
Centrifugal Acceleration, Centrifugal Potentialp. 54
Gravity Acceleration, Gravity Potentialp. 55
Geometry of the Gravity Fieldp. 57
Level Surfaces and Plumb Linesp. 57
Local Gravity Field Representation, Curvaturesp. 59
Natural Coordinatesp. 64
Spherical Harmonic Expansion of the Gravitational Potentialp. 66
Expansion of the Reciprocal Distancep. 67
Expansion of the Gravitational Potentialp. 69
Geometrical Interpretation of the Surface Spherical Harmonicsp. 73
Physical Interpretation of the Harmonic Coefficientsp. 74
The Geoidp. 76
Definitionp. 76
Mean Sea Levelp. 78
The Geoid as Height Reference Surfacep. 80
Temporal Gravity Variationsp. 83
Gravitational Constant, Earth Rotationp. 83
Tidal Acceleration, Tidal Potentialp. 84
Non-Tidal Temporal Variationsp. 90
The Geodetic Earth Modelp. 91
The Rotational Ellipsoidp. 91
Parameters and Coordinate Systemsp. 91
Curvaturep. 95
Spatial Geodetic Coordinatesp. 99
The Normal Gravity Fieldp. 102
The Level Ellipsoid, Level Spheroidsp. 103
The Normal Gravity Field of the Level Ellipsoidp. 104
Geometry of the Normal Gravity Fieldp. 111
Geodetic Reference Systemsp. 114
Methods of Measurementp. 119
Atmospheric Refractionp. 119
Fundamentalsp. 120
Tropospheric Refractionp. 124
Ionospheric Refractionp. 127
Satellite Observationsp. 130
Undisturbed Satellite Motionp. 130
Perturbed Satellite Motionp. 133
Artificial Earth Satellitesp. 136
Direction, Range and Range Rate Measurements: Classical Methodsp. 139
Global Positioning System (GPS)p. 142
Laser Distance Measurementsp. 151
Satellite Altimetryp. 154
Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking, Satellite Gravity Gradiometryp. 157
Geodetic Astronomyp. 159
Optical Observation Instrumentsp. 159
Astronomic Positioning and Azimuth Determinationp. 162
Reductionsp. 165
Very Long Baseline Interferometryp. 167
Gravimetryp. 171
Absolute Gravity Measurementsp. 171
Relative Gravity Measurementsp. 178
Gravity Reference Systemsp. 184
Gravity Measurements on Moving Platformsp. 186
Gravity Gradiometryp. 191
Continuous Gravity Measurementsp. 193
Terrestrial Geodetic Measurementsp. 196
Horizontal and Vertical Angle Measurementsp. 196
Distance Measurements, Total Stationsp. 199
Levelingp. 206
Tilt and Strain Measurementsp. 211
Methods of Evaluationp. 214
Residual Gravity Fieldp. 214
Disturbing Potential, Height Anomaly, Geoid Heightp. 214
Gravity Disturbance, Gravity Anomaly, Deflection of the Verticalp. 217
Statistical Description of the Gravity Field, Interpolationp. 220
Three-dimensional Positioningp. 226
Observation Equationsp. 226
Geodetic Datump. 234
Horizontal Positioningp. 239
Ellipsoidal Trigonometryp. 240
Reductions to the Ellipsoidp. 243
Computations on the Ellipsoidp. 245
Height Determinationp. 249
Heights from Geometric Levelingp. 249
Trigonometrical Heightsp. 252
Heights from GPSp. 254
Fundamentals of Gravity Field Modelingp. 256
The Geodetic Boundary-Value Problemp. 256
Gravitation of Topographyp. 260
Gravity Reductions to the Geoidp. 262
Orientation and Scale of Gravity Field Modelsp. 268
Global Gravity Field Modelingp. 270
Spherical Harmonic Expansionsp. 271
Low-degree Gravity Field Modelsp. 274
High-degree Gravity Field Modelsp. 278
Local Gravity Field Modelingp. 281
Gravimetric Geoid Heights and Deflections of the Verticalp. 282
Gravimetric Height Anomalies and Surface Deflections of the Verticalp. 289
The External Gravity Fieldp. 293
Astrogeodetic Geoid and Quasigeoid Determinationp. 294
Combined Methods for Positioning and Gravity Field Determinationp. 300
Earth Models and Optimum Earth Parametersp. 301
Least Squares Collocationp. 303
Geodetic and Gravimetric Networksp. 308
Horizontal Control Networksp. 308
Design and Observationp. 309
Computation and Orientationp. 311
Vertical Control Networksp. 320
Three-dimensional Networksp. 323
Global and Continental Networksp. 323
National Networksp. 327
Gravity Networksp. 330
Structure and Dynamics of the Earthp. 333
The Geophysical Earth Modelp. 333
The Upper Layers of the Earthp. 337
Structure of the Earth's Crust and Upper Mantlep. 337
Isostasyp. 339
Plate Tectonicsp. 343
Interpretation of the Gravity Fieldp. 345
Geodesy and Geodynamicsp. 350
Changes in Earth Rotationp. 350
Sea Level Variationsp. 352
Recent Crustal Movementsp. 355
Gravity Variations with Timep. 359
Earth Tidesp. 362
Referencesp. 369
Indexp. 405
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783110170726
ISBN-10: 3110170728
Audience: General
For Ages: 18 - 21 years old
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 431
Published: 30th May 2001
Publisher: De Gruyter
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.93 x 17.02  x 2.36
Weight (kg): 0.71
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised