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Geochemistry of Marine Sediments - David J. Burdige

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

Hardcover

Published: 21st August 2006
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The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner's "Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach," David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese.

No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis, "Geochemistry of Marine Sediments" will interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.

"This excellent and comprehensive volume on the geochemistry of marine sediments synthesizes a large body of recent research as well as the author's own extensive work in the field since 1983. The breadth and depth of the subject matter is supported by approximately 1,000 literature references on 71 pages, and the text is divided into 18 chapters of varying length."--Abraham Lerman, Journal of Geology "Despite the complexity of the medium and the processes occurring in it, Burdige has written a comprehensive, well-organized, thoroughly referenced, and highly readable text. Marine sediments are important as habitats for life, in geochemical cycling elements, and as an essential record of the past. These themes are seamlessly integrated in the book, which should find a place on the shelves of anyone working in these areas."--Carol Arnosti, Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin "Burdige offers a thorough and complete discussion of geochemical processes governing sedimentary composition and diagenesis, according to the current understanding... The presentation is comprehensive and clear."--Choice "In this extraordinary tour de force, Burdige captures the complexity and growing interdisciplinary nature of the field of marine geochemistry. The book is sure to become a standard text for years to come."--Thomas S. Bianchi, Eos

Prefacep. xv
Common Abbreviations and Symbolsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
The Components of Marine Sedimentsp. 5
Detrital Componentsp. 5
Biogenic Componentsp. 8
Biogenic Carbonatesp. 9
Biogenic Silicap. 10
Distribution of Biogenic Components in Marine Sedimentsp. 10
Authigenic Mineralsp. 12
Nonbiogenic Carbonatesp. 13
Mn Crusts, Layers, and Nodulesp. 13
Phosphoritesp. 14
Sulfidesp. 15
Clays and Clay Mineralsp. 15
Distribution of Clay Minerals in Surface Marine Sedimentsp. 18
Ion Exchange/Adsorptionp. 20
The Classification of Marine Sediments and Sedimentary Regimesp. 24
Isotope Geochemistryp. 27
Introductionp. 27
Principles of Isotope Fractionationp. 28
Terminologyp. 30
Equilibrium Isotope Exchange Reactionsp. 31
Isotope Fractionation in Inorganic Materials in Naturep. 32
Isotope Fractionation in the Hydrosphere and in Ice coresp. 32
Isotope Fractionation during Clay Mineral Formationp. 34
Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Calcitep. 35
Carbon Isotopes in Organic Matterp. 36
Photosynthesisp. 37
Respiration (Early Diagenesis in Sediments)p. 38
Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes in Sediment Pore-Watersp. 38
Carbon Isotopesp. 38
Oxygen Isotopesp. 39
Nitrogen Isotopesp. 39
Sulfur Isotopesp. 40
Radioactive Isotopesp. 40
Basic Principlesp. 40
Radiocarbonp. 43
Physical Properties of Sedimentsp. 46
Grain Sizep. 46
Porosity and Sediment Densityp. 47
Permeabilityp. 55
An Introduction to Transport Processes in Sedimentsp. 59
Diffusionp. 59
Sediment Accumulation, Steady State, and the Frame of Reference for Processes in Marine Sedimentsp. 61
An Introduction to Bioturbation and Bioirrigationp. 65
Time and Space Scales of Sediment Processesp. 67
The Classification of Marine Sediments on the Basis of Their Functional Diagenetic Characteristicsp. 70
Models of Sediment Diagenesisp. 72
The General Diagenetic Equationp. 72
Diffusionp. 74
Advection, Sediment Compaction, and Bioturbationp. 78
Adsorptionp. 83
Solutions to the Diagenetic Equationp. 84
Boundary Conditionsp. 86
Solutions to Specific Diagenetic Equationsp. 87
Organic Matter Remineralization without Bioturbationp. 88
Organic Matter Remineralization with Bioturbationp. 89
Organic Matter Remineralization Coupled to Sulfate Reductionp. 91
Ammonium Production in Anoxic Sedimentsp. 92
Determination of Sediment Accumulation Ratesp. 95
Biogeochemical Processes in Sedimentsp. 97
Bacterial Metabolism: General Considerationsp. 98
Bacterial Respiration and Biogeochemical Zonation in Sedimentsp. 99
Bacterial Respiration: Specific Processesp. 105
Aerobic Respirationp. 105
Denitrificationp. 105
Manganese and Iron Reductionp. 107
Sulfate Reductionp. 110
Methanogenesisp. 111
Chemolithotrophic Reactionsp. 114
Aerobic Processesp. 114
Anaerobic Processesp. 116
Linkages between Chemolithotrophic and Organic Matter Remineralization Processesp. 116
The Distribution of Organic Matter Remineralization Processes in Marine Sedimentsp. 120
Depth Scales of Biogeochemical Zonationp. 120
General Trends with Water Column Depth or Sediment Typep. 124
Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sedimentsp. 134
General Considerationsp. 134
Anaerobic "Foodchains"p. 135
Dynamics of Organic Matter Decomposition under Mixed Redox Conditionsp. 139
Quantifying Carbon and Nutrient Remineralization in Sedimentsp. 142
Models of Organic Matter Decomposition in Sedimentsp. 142
Sediment Budgets for Reactive Componentsp. 150
Theoretical Considerationsp. 151
Sediment Nutrient Budgets Using Cape Lookout Bight as an Examplep. 153
Carbon Burial in Sedimentsp. 161
Layered and Coupled Models of Sediment Diagenesisp. 162
An Introduction to the Organic Geochemistry of Marine Sedimentsp. 171
General Considerationsp. 172
Concentrations and Sources of Organic Matter in Marine Sedimentsp. 174
The Bulk Chemical Composition of Marine Sediment Organic Matterp. 175
Amino Acidsp. 179
Carbohydratesp. 189
Ligninsp. 193
Lipidsp. 194
Humic Substances and Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matterp. 204
Black Carbonp. 206
Molecularly Uncharacterized Organic Matter (MU-OM): General Considerationsp. 207
Geopolymerization: The Formation of Humic Substancesp. 209
Selective Preservation of Refractory Biomacromoleculesp. 212
Physical Protectionp. 213
Organic Nitrogen Diagenesis in Sedimentsp. 215
Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Sedimentsp. 218
General Observationsp. 218
Diagenetic Models of Pore-Water DOM Cycling in Sedimentsp. 227
Pore-Water DOM Compositional Datap. 228
Short-Chain Organic Acidsp. 230
Carbohydratesp. 231
Amino Acidsp. 231
Fluxes of DOM from Marine Sedimentsp. 232
DOM Adsorption and Sediment-Organic Matter Interactionsp. 234
Linking Sediment Organic Geochemistry and Sediment Diagenesisp. 237
The Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sedimentsp. 237
Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Tracers of Organic Matter Sourcesp. 238
Elemental Ratios as Tracers of Organic Matter Sourcesp. 241
Spatial Trends in the Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments: Marine versus Terrestrialp. 244
Other Sources of Organic Matter to Marine Sediments: Black Carbon and Recycled Kerogenp. 249
Production of Bacterial Biomass in Sedimentsp. 250
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization in Marine Sedimentsp. 253
Pore-Water Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regeneration/Organic Mater Remineralizationp. 254
Benthic Flux and Sediment POM Stoichiometric Models for Nutrient Regenerationp. 260
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Elemental Ratios and Stable Isotopic Compositionp. 261
The Composition of Organic Matter Undergoing Remineralization: Organic Geochemical Compositionp. 265
Processes at the Sediment-Water Interfacep. 271
The Determination of Benthic Fluxesp. 272
Diffusive Transport and the Benthic Boundary Layerp. 274
Sediment-Water Exchange Processes in Permeable Sedimentsp. 283
Bioturbationp. 286
General Considerationsp. 286
Models of Bioturbationp. 289
Nonlocal Sediment Mixingp. 299
Bioirrigationp. 302
The Diffusive Openness of Bioirrigated Sedimentsp. 313
Methods for Quantifying Bioirrigation in Sedimentsp. 316
Rates of Bioirrigation in Marine Sedimentsp. 319
Other Sediment-Water Interface Processes: Methane Gas Ebullitionp. 326
Biogeochemical Processes in Pelagic (Deep-Sea) Sedimentsp. 328
Organic Matter Remineralizationp. 328
Trace Metal Diagenesisp. 332
Manganese Nodules and Crustsp. 344
Diagenesis of Opaline Silicap. 352
Diagenesis of Calcium Carbonatep. 359
Nonsteady-State Processes in Marine Sedimentsp. 373
General Considerationsp. 373
Periodic Input Processesp. 374
Seasonality in Sediment Processesp. 378
Diagenetic Processes in Deep-Sea Turbiditesp. 382
Organic Geochemical Studies of Turbidite Diagenesisp. 391
Multiple Mn Peaks in Sediments: Nonsteady-State Diagenetic Processes Associated with Paleoceanographic Changesp. 395
Multiple Mn Peaks and the Glacial-Holocene Transitionp. 400
Multiple Mn Peaks and Pleistocene Climate Cyclesp. 402
Multiple Mn Peaks in Holocene Sedimentsp. 404
The Controls on Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sedimentsp. 408
Organic Matter-Mineral Interactionsp. 412
The Role of Oxygen in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservationp. 417
The Role of Benthic Macrofaunal Processes in Sediment Carbon Remineralization and Preservationp. 419
Oxygen Exposure Time as a Determinant of Organic Carbon Preservation in Sedimentsp. 421
What Exactly Does Sediment Oxygen Exposure "Mean"?p. 425
Organic Carbon Burial and Controls on Atmospheric 0[subscript 2]p. 428
The Composition of Organic Matter Preserved in Marine Sediments and the Fate of Terrestrial Organic Matter in Marine Sedimentsp. 432
The Relationship between Physical Protection, Oxygen Exposure, and Possible Abiotic Condensation Reactions in Sediment Carbon Preservationp. 439
Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. I. The CO[subscript 2] System and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cyclingp. 442
Pore-Water pH and Carbonate Chemistry under Suboxic and Anoxic Conditionsp. 442
Sediment Nitrogen Cyclingp. 452
Benthic DON Fluxesp. 463
Sediment Phosphorus Cyclingp. 464
Formation of Authigenic CFA and Phosphorus Burial in Sedimentsp. 474
Biogeochemical Processes in Continental Margin Sediments. II. Sulfur, Methane, and Trace Metal Cyclingp. 478
Sediment Sulfur Cyclingp. 478
Sulfur Burial Efficiencyp. 486
Long-Term Changes in the Sedimentary Sulfur Cyclep. 489
Methanogenesis and Anaerobic Methane Oxidationp. 490
Shallow (Coastal) Sedimentsp. 490
Continental Margin Sedimentsp. 493
Trace Metal Cyclingp. 500
Linking Sediment Processes to Global Elemental Cycles: Authigenic Clay Mineral Formation and Reverse Weatheringp. 509
Sediment Silica Budgetsp. 514
Final Thoughtsp. 515
Some of the Field Sites Discussed in the Textp. 517
Referencesp. 521
Indexp. 593
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691095066
ISBN-10: 069109506X
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 609
Published: 21st August 2006
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.26  x 4.24
Weight (kg): 1.19