This book provides the first English translation of Bezout's masterpiece, the "General Theory of Algebraic Equations." It follows, by almost two hundred years, the English translation of his famous mathematics textbooks. Here, Bezout presents his approach to solving systems of polynomial equations in several variables and in great detail. He introduces the revolutionary notion of the "polynomial multiplier," which greatly simplifies the problem of variable elimination by reducing it to a system of linear equations. The major result presented in this work, now known as "Bezout's theorem," is stated as follows: "The degree of the final equation resulting from an arbitrary number of complete equations containing the same number of unknowns and with arbitrary degrees is equal to the product of the exponents of the degrees of these equations."
The book offers large numbers of results and insights about conditions for polynomials to share a common factor, or to share a common root. It also provides a state-of-the-art analysis of the theories of integration and differentiation of functions in the late eighteenth century, as well as one of the first uses of determinants to solve systems of linear equations. Polynomial multiplier methods have become, today, one of the most promising approaches to solving complex systems of polynomial equations or inequalities, and this translation offers a valuable historic perspective on this active research field.
"This is not a book to be taken to the office, but to be left at home, and to be read on weekend, as a romance. We already know the plot, but here we meet all the characters, major and minor."--Cicero Fernandes de Carvalho, Mathematical Reviews "Bezout's classic General Theory of Algebraic Equations is ... an immortal evergreen of astonishing actual relevance... [I]ts first English translation is utmost welcome and appropriate, and a great gain for the international mathematical community, both today and in the future."--Werner Kleinert, Zentralblatt MATH
Translator's Foreword | p. xi |
Dedication from the 1779 edition | p. xiii |
Preface to the 1779 edition | p. xv |
Introduction: Theory of differences and sums of quantities | p. 1 |
Definitions and preliminary notions | p. 1 |
About the way to determine the differences of quantities | p. 3 |
A general and fundamental remark | p. 7 |
Reductions that may apply to the general rule to differentiate quantities when several differentiations must be made | p. 8 |
Remarks about the differences of decreasing quantities | p. 9 |
About certain quantities that must be differentiated through a simpler process than that resulting from the general rule | p. 10 |
About sums of quantities | p. 10 |
About sums of quantities whose factors grow arithmetically | p. 11 |
Remarks | p. 11 |
About sums of rational quantities with no variable divider | p. 12 |
About complete polynomials and complete equations | p. 15 |
About the number of terms in complete polynomials | p. 16 |
Compute the value of N(u...n)[superscript T] | p. 16 |
About the number of terms of a complete polynomial that can be divided by certain monomials composed of one or more of the unknowns present in this polynomial | p. 17 |
p. 17 | |
p. 19 | |
Remark | p. 20 |
Initial considerations about computing the degree of the final equation resulting from an arbitrary number of complete equations with the same number of unknowns | p. 21 |
Determination of the degree of the final equation resulting from an arbitrary number of complete equations containing the same number of unknowns | p. 22 |
Remarks | p. 24 |
About incomplete polynomials and first-order incomplete equations | p. 26 |
About incomplete polynomials and incomplete equations in which each unknown does not exceed a given degree for each unknown. And where the unknowns, combined two-by-two, three-by-three, four-by-four etc., all reach the total dimension of the polynomial or the equation | p. 28 |
p. 28 | |
p. 29 | |
p. 32 | |
We ask for the degree of the final equation resulting from an arbitrary number n of equations of the form (u[superscript a]...n)[superscript t] = 0 in the same number of unknowns | p. 32 |
Remark | p. 34 |
About the sum of some quantities necessary to determine the number of terms of various types of incomplete polynomials | p. 35 |
p. 35 | |
p. 36 | |
p. 36 | |
p. 37 | |
About incomplete polynomials, and incomplete equations, in which two of the unknowns (the same in each polynomial or equation) share the following characteristics: (1) The degree of each of these unknowns does not exceed a given number (different or the same for each unknown); (2) These two unknowns, taken together, do not exceed a given dimension; (3) The other unknowns do not exceed a given degree (different or the same for each), but, when combined groups of two or three among themselves as well as with the first two, they reach all possible dimensions until that of the polynomial or the equation | p. 38 |
p. 39 | |
p. 40 | |
p. 41 | |
p. 42 | |
Problem XVI | p. 42 |
About incomplete polynomials and equations, in which three of the unknowns satisfy the following characteristics: (1) The degree of each unknown does not exceed a given value, different or the same for each; (2) The combination of two unknowns does not exceed a given dimension, different or the same for each combination of two of these three unknowns; (3) The combination of the three unknowns does not exceed a given dimension. We further assume that the degrees of the n - 3 other unknowns do not exceed given values; we also assume that the combination of two, three, four, etc. of these variables among themselves or with the first three reaches all possible dimensions, up to the dimension of the polynomial | p. 45 |
p. 46 | |
p. 47 | |
Summary and table of the different values of the number of terms sought in the preceding polynomial and in related quantities | p. 56 |
p. 61 | |
p. 62 | |
p. 63 | |
p. 63 | |
About the largest number of terms that can be cancelled in a given polynomial by using a given number of equations, without introducing new terms | p. 65 |
Determination of the symptoms indicating which value of the degree of the final equation must be chosen or rejected, among the different available expressions | p. 69 |
Expansion of the various values of the degree of the final equation, resulting from the general expression found in (104), and expansion of the set of conditions that justify these values | p. 70 |
Application of the preceding theory to equations in three unknowns | p. 71 |
General considerations about the degree of the final equation, when considering the other incomplete equations similar to those considered up until now | p. 85 |
p. 86 | |
General method to determine the degree of the final equation for all cases of equations of the form (u[superscript a]...n)[superscript t] = 0 | p. 94 |
General considerations about the number of terms of other polynomials that are similar to those we have examined | p. 101 |
Conclusion about first-order incomplete equations | p. 112 |
About incomplete polynomials and second-, third-, fourth-, etc. order incomplete equations | p. 115 |
About the number of terms in incomplete polynomials of arbitrary order | p. 118 |
p. 118 | |
About the form of the polynomial multiplier and of the polynomials whose number of terms impact the degree of the final equation resulting from a given number of incomplete equations with arbitrary order | p. 119 |
Useful notions for the reduction of differentials that enter in the expression of the number of terms of a polynomial with arbitrary order | p. 121 |
p. 122 | |
Table of all possible values of the degree of the final equations for all possible cases of incomplete, second-order equations in two unknowns | p. 127 |
Conclusion about incomplete equations of arbitrary order | p. 134 |
p. 137 | |
General observations | p. 137 |
A new elimination method for first-order equations with an arbitrary number of unknowns | p. 138 |
General rule to compute the values of the unknowns, altogether or separately, in first-order equations, whether these equations are symbolic or numerical | p. 139 |
A method to find functions of an arbitrary number of unknowns which are identically zero | p. 145 |
About the form of the polynomial multiplier, or the polynomial multipliers, leading to the final equation | p. 151 |
About the requirement not to use all coefficients of the polynomial multipliers toward elimination | p. 153 |
About the number of coefficients in each polynomial multiplier which are useful for the purpose of elimination | p. 155 |
About the terms that may or must be excluded in each polynomial multiplier | p. 156 |
About the best use that can be made of the coefficients of the terms that may be cancelled in each polynomial multiplier | p. 158 |
Other applications of the methods presented in this book for the General Theory of Equations | p. 160 |
Useful considerations to considerably shorten the computation of the coefficients useful for elimination | p. 163 |
Applications of previous considerations to different examples; interpretation and usage of various factors that are encountered in the computation of the coefficients in the final equation | p. 174 |
General remarks about the symptoms indicating the possibility of lowering the degree of the final equation, and about the way to determine these symptoms | p. 191 |
About means to considerably reduce the number of coefficients used for elimination. Resulting simplifications in the polynomial multipliers | p. 196 |
More applications, etc. | p. 205 |
About the care to be exercised when using simpler polynomial multipliers than their general form (231 and following), when dealing with incomplete equations | p. 209 |
More applications, etc. | p. 213 |
About equations where the number of unknowns is lower by one unit than the number of these equations. A fast process to find the final equation resulting from an arbitrary number of equations with the same number of unknowns | p. 221 |
About polynomial multipliers that are appropriate for elimination using this second method | p. 223 |
Details of the method | p. 225 |
First general example | p. 226 |
Second general example | p. 228 |
Third general example | p. 234 |
Fourth general example | p. 237 |
Observation | p. 241 |
Considerations about the factor in the final equation obtained by using the second method | p. 251 |
About the means to recognize which coefficients in the proposed equations can appear in the factor of the appearent final equation | p. 253 |
Determining the factor of the final equation: How to interpret its meaning | p. 269 |
About the factor that arises when going from the general final equation to final equations of lower degrees | p. 270 |
Determination of the factor mentioned above | p. 274 |
About equations where the number of unknowns is less than the number of equations by two units | p. 276 |
Form of the simplest polynomial multipliers used to reach the two condition equations resulting from n equations in n - 2 unknowns | p. 278 |
About a much broader use of the arbitrary coefficients and their usefulness to reach the condition equations with lowest literal dimension | p. 301 |
About systems of n equations in p unknowns, where p < n | p. 307 |
When not all proposed equations are necessary to obtain the condition equation with lowest literal dimension | p. 314 |
About the way to find, given a set of equations, whether some of them necessarily follow from the others | p. 316 |
About equations that only partially follow from the others | p. 318 |
Reflexions on the successive elimination method | p. 319 |
About equations whose form is arbitrary, regular or irregular. Determination of the degree of the final equation in all cases | p. 320 |
Remark | p. 327 |
Follow-up on the same subject | p. 328 |
About equations whose number is smaller than the number of unknowns they contain. New observations about the factors of the final equation | p. 333 |
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved. |
ISBN: 9780691114323
ISBN-10: 0691114323
Audience:
Tertiary; University or College
Format:
Hardcover
Language:
English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 2nd April 2006
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.2
x 3.81
Weight (kg): 0.62