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Fundamentals of Soil Ecology Second Edition - Paul F. Hendrix

Fundamentals of Soil Ecology Second Edition

Hardcover Published: 2nd August 2004
ISBN: 9780121797263
Number Of Pages: 408

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This fully revised and expanded edition of Fundamentals of Soil Ecology continues its holistic approach to soil biology and ecosystem function. Students and ecosystem researchers will gain a greater understanding of the central roles that soils play in ecosystem development and function. The authors emphasize the increasing importance of soils as the organizing center for all terrestrial ecosystems and provide an overview of theory and practice of soil ecology, both from an ecosystem and evolutionary biology point of view. This volume contains updated and greatly expanded coverage of all belowground biota (roots, microbes and fauna) and methods to identify and determine its distribution and abundance. New chapters are provided on soil biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem processes, suggested laboratory and field methods to measure biota and their activities in ecosystems..
* Contains over 60% new material and 150 more pages
* Includes new chapters on soil biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem function
* Outlines suggested laboratory and field methods
* Incorporates new pedagogical features
* Combines theoretical and practical approaches

"This book is by highly respected authors on a very active subject...it will give an excellent education on soil organisms and their general behavior." -P.B.H. Tinker, in EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE, VOL. 41, 2005 "...a very well written and organized book, with its major strength in stating the various topics as 'state of the art,' along with the authors' visions for the near future of soil ecology." -Hector Causarano, Auburn University, in VADOSE ZONE JOURNAL, 2005 "This updated and expanded edition will be useful as a textbook for students of soil ecology and scientists doing research in this field." -Northeastern Naturalist "This book, with new material and updates to the first edition, delineates more than any other single source, the subject matter and key questions in the field. It provides a wide ranging and, in nearly all cases, a thorough and up-to-date synthesis of both older and recent literature. The writing is erudite, yet with a clear and easy style, sprinkled with anecdotes that make for an engaging read...this is an excellent reference work for soil scientists and ecologists. The style and structure of the book is somewhere between that of a traditional text book and a literature review/monograph. While basic concepts and core knowledge are well laid out, the reader is invited to explore many diverse and sometime contradictory finding and to make their own interpretations and conclusions. Hence, the book is well suited as a thought provoking text for graduate students and as an essential desk reference for the working scientist in the field." - Keith Paustian, Colorado State University, in AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS "...this book by Coleman, Crossley, and Hendrix is an eye-opener and a fascinating journey...Very simple and distinct illustrations further enhance the practicality and attractivity of this volume. The language is clear and concise, and conveys the fascination and dedication of the authors. This clarity is to be appreciated by every academic teacher and makes it fun reading. Essentially this book is both a primer and a wonderful textbook, which provides a much needed overview on soil ecology that is key to appreciating this fascinating environment and identifying what is needed to ensure soil well-being (for our own benefit). Fundamentals of Soil Ecology can be wholly recommended and should even be read by those who only occasionally deal with the soil system." - ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY "The authors of this book have, for many years, been at the forefront of the discipline of soil ecology. Indeed, their collective work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the udnerground world and has helped fuel the growing interest in this field of exploration...This book provides an excellent introduction to the field of soil ecology and is essential reading for any student or researcher with interest in the below ground world and the functioning of terestrial ecosystems. Indeed, it has all the traits of an excellent textbook: It is well written, richly illustrated, informative, through provoking, and well supported by a comprehensive and up-to-date literature base. What is unique about the book, in my view, is that it takes a truly holistic perspective to the study of soil ecology, highlighting the importance of the food web approach- emphasizing the central role of trophic interactions- and the role of soil as the organizing center for terrestrial ecosystems. The lead author and his coworkers are pioneers of this approach to soil ecology, and this book exemplifies their contribution to this field. I recommend this book strongly." -Richard Bardgett, Institute of Environmental and National Sciences, Soil and Ecosystem Ecology, Lancaster University, in BIOSCIENCE "Fundamentals of Soil Ecology by Coleman et al. is a thorough, well-researched presentation of current trends in soil ecology. This book is full of useful information; of particular value are discussions of lab and field methods, and future research needs in soil ecology. This book will be valuable for soil scientists and ecologists needing up-to-date information on soil organisms, food webs, and interactions with nutrient cycles. I highly recommend this book." - Thomas L. Thompson, Professor of Soil Science, University of Arizona, U.S.A. "The recommended text for my course on the ecology of soil organisms has just got better with the second edition of Fundamentals of Soil Ecology...this new edition retains the same engrossing read but even more information. The updated reference material, new sections and relevance to current events and, particularly, the practical exercises in the last chapter are most welcome. Coleman, Crossley and Hendrix have brought us a thorough review of a very fast evolving field of ecology...This book is timely in bringing our attention to soils as living entities that need to be conserved and managed judiciously. This book remains my choice of texts for students and would be recommended for anyone with an interest in soils at any level." - John Dighton, Director, Rutgers University Pinelands Field Station, U.S.A. "This well written, thoroughly updated edition supplies an excellent discussion of soil fauna while placing all the soil biota and their metabolism into a holistic, soil ecology context. The linkage of soil foodwebs and biodiversity to soil processes and global change nicely ties together the basic and applied aspects of these important concepts." - Eldor Paul, Colorado State University, U.S.A. & Editor of Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry "Three renowned experts in soil ecology contribute a needed addition to anyone interested in understanding the complex ecosystem beneath our feet. They bring together the most recent information on soil science, soil zoology and ecology, in a comprehensive, well-written book. Adding laboratory and field experiments as a final chapter assures that all students, young and old, can continue to explore the organisms in this hidden world. For everyone wanting an in depth appreciation of the fascinating creatures and their role in soils, this book is a must read!" - Diana Wall, Professor and Director, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, U.S.A. "This book provides a balanced and comprehensive perspective on the multi-disciplinary nature of soil ecology that spans from the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil as a habitat to the impact that soil communities have on ecosystem function...Traditional and contemporary methods for extraction, enumeration and identification of all major phyla in soils of forest, desert, agricultural and grassland ecosystems are described both conceptually and as research protocols approachable to scientists ranging in expertise from novice to experts. The tables and figures provide a synthesis of literature and graphic illustration of concepts that is invaluable in self-learning and instruction in both formal and informal settings." - Deborah Neher, Soil Ecologist & Professor, University of Toledo, Ohio, U.S.A. "This fully revised and expanded edition of Fundamentals of Soil Ecology continues its holistic approach to soil biology and ecosystem function. Students and ecosystem researchers will gain a greater understanding of the central roles that soils play in ecosystem development and function." - in BOIS & FORETS DES TROPIQUES

Preface to the Second Editionp. xi
Preface to the First Editionp. xiii
Historical Overview of Soils and the Fitness of the Soil Environmentp. 1
The Historical Background of Soil Ecologyp. 1
Water as a Constituent of Soilp. 4
Elemental Constitution of Soilp. 9
How Soils Are Formedp. 9
Profile Developmentp. 11
Soil Texturep. 13
Clay Mineral Structurep. 15
Soil Structurep. 16
Soils as Suppliers of Ecosystem Servicesp. 20
Summaryp. 20
Primary Production Processes in Soils: Roots and Rhizosphere Associatesp. 23
Introductionp. 23
The Primary Production Processp. 23
Methods of Samplingp. 25
Destructive Techniquesp. 25
The Harvest Methodp. 25
Isotope-Dilution Methodp. 28
Root-Ingrowth Techniquep. 28
Nondestructive Techniquesp. 30
Additional Sources of Primary Productionp. 34
Symbiotic Associates of Rootsp. 34
Mycorrhizal Structure and Functionp. 36
Ecosystem-Level Consequences of ECM Functionp. 37
Actinorhizap. 38
Carbon Allocation in the Root/Rhizospherep. 38
Carbon Allocation Costs of Development and Maintenance of Symbiotic Associations with Rootsp. 42
Future Directions for Research on Roots and Mycorrhizal Function and Biodiversityp. 44
Summaryp. 46
Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--Microbesp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Compounds Being Decomposedp. 48
Microbial Activities in Relation to Catabolism in Soil Systemsp. 48
Microbial Abundance and Distribution in Soilp. 53
Techniques for Measuring Microbial Communitiesp. 57
Direct Measures of Numbers and Biomassp. 57
Indirect Measures of Biomassp. 59
Chemical Methodsp. 59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Incubation (CFI) Techniquep. 59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Extraction (CFE) Techniquep. 60
Physiological Methods: SIR Techniquep. 61
Additional Physiological Methods of Measuring Microbial Activityp. 61
Enzyme Assays and Measures of Biological Activities in Soilsp. 63
Direct Methods of Determining Soil Microbial Activityp. 66
Soil Sterilization and Partial Sterilization Techniquesp. 67
Conceptual Models of Microbes in Soil Systemsp. 67
Root-Rhizosphere Microbe Models and Experimentsp. 67
Soil Aggregation Modelsp. 69
Models: Organism and Process-Orientedp. 74
Summaryp. 77
Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--The Soil Faunap. 79
Introductionp. 79
The Microfaunap. 83
Methods for Extracting and Counting Protozoap. 86
Distribution of Protozoa in Soil Profilesp. 87
Impacts of Protozoa on Ecosystem Functionp. 87
The Mesofaunap. 89
Rotiferap. 89
Features of Body Plan and General Ecologyp. 89
Nematodap. 90
Nematode Feeding Habitsp. 90
Nematode Zones of Activity in Soilp. 93
Nematode Extraction Techniquesp. 94
Tardigradap. 95
Microarthropodsp. 98
Collembolap. 101
Families of Collembolap. 103
Population Growth and Reproductionp. 107
Collembolan Feeding Habitsp. 107
Collembolan Impacts on Soil Ecosystemsp. 108
Acari (Mites)p. 109
Oribatid Mitesp. 111
Abundance and Diversity of Oribatid Mitesp. 114
Population Growthp. 116
Oribatid Feeding Habitsp. 116
Oribatid Impacts on Soil Ecosystemsp. 119
Prostigmatic Mitesp. 119
Mesostigmatic Mitesp. 122
Astigmatic Mitesp. 124
Other Microarthropodsp. 128
Proturap. 128
Diplurap. 129
Microcoryphiap. 130
Pseudoscorpionidap. 130
Symphylap. 131
Pauropodap. 133
Enchytraeidaep. 133
The Macrofaunap. 141
Macroarthropodsp. 141
Importance of the Macroarthropodsp. 141
Isopodap. 143
Diplopodap. 145
Chilopodap. 146
Scorpionidap. 147
Araneaep. 149
Opilionesp. 151
Solifugaep. 152
Uropygip. 152
The Pterygote Insectsp. 153
Coleopterap. 154
Hymenopterap. 159
Dipterap. 161
Isopterap. 162
Other Pterygotap. 166
Gastropodap. 167
Sampling Techniques for Gastropodsp. 168
Oligochaeta--Earthwormsp. 169
Earthworm Distribution and Abundancep. 170
Biology and Ecologyp. 171
Influence on Soil Processesp. 176
Earthworm Managementp. 178
Earthworm Sampling and Identificationp. 179
General Attributes of Fauna in Soil Systemsp. 181
Faunal Feedbacks on Microbial Community Composition and Diversityp. 182
Summaryp. 184
Decomposition and Nutrient Cyclingp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Integrating Variablesp. 188
Resource Quality, Climate, and Litter Breakdownp. 190
Dynamics of Litter Breakdownp. 192
Direct Measurement of Litter Breakdownp. 194
Patterns of Mass Loss During Decompositionp. 201
Effects of Fauna on Litter Breakdown Ratesp. 204
Nutrient Movement During Decompositionp. 206
Nutrient Cycling Links in Soil Systemsp. 215
Role of Soil Fauna in Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Turnoverp. 216
Faunal Impacts in Applied Ecology--Agroecosystemsp. 220
Applied Ecology in Forested Ecosystemsp. 222
Summaryp. 225
Soil Food Webs: Detritivory and Microbivory in Soilsp. 227
Introductionp. 227
Physiological Ecology of Soil Organismsp. 229
Energy Available for Detrital Food Chains and Websp. 231
Arenas of Interestp. 236
A Hierarchical Approach to Organisms in Soilsp. 237
Future Research Prospectsp. 241
Summaryp. 246
Soil Biodiversity and Linkages to Soil Processesp. 247
Introductionp. 247
Biodiversity in Soils and Its Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Functionp. 247
Heterogeneity of Carbon Substrates and Effects on Soil Biodiversityp. 259
Impacts of Species Richness on Ecosystem Functionp. 259
Models, Microcosms, and Soil Biodiversityp. 263
Experimental Additions and Deletions in Soil Biodiversity Studiesp. 265
Problems of Concern in Soil Biodiversity Studiesp. 266
Why Is Soil Diversity So High?p. 269
Biogeographical Trends in Diversity of Soil Organismsp. 269
Future Developments in Soil Ecologyp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Roles of Soils in Carbon Sequestrationp. 271
Roles of Soils in the Global Carbon Cyclep. 275
Problems in Modeling Soil Carbon Dynamicsp. 279
Biological Interactions in Soils and Global Changep. 281
Ecology of Invasive Species in Soil Systems: An Increasing Problem in Soil Ecologyp. 285
Soils and "Gaia": Possible Mechanisms for Evolution of "the Fitness of the Soil Environment?"p. 289
Soil Ecology in the Third Millenniump. 293
Laboratory and Field Exercises in Soil Ecologyp. 299
Introductionp. 299
Minirhizotron Studiesp. 299
Principlep. 299
Description of a Minirhizotronp. 299
Installation of the Minirhizotronsp. 300
Observation and Recordingp. 300
Getting Data from the Videotapep. 300
Tracing Techniquep. 300
Automated Root Length Measuresp. 301
Soil Respiration Studiesp. 301
Principlep. 301
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 301
Procedurep. 302
Calculationsp. 302
Litter Decomposition Studiesp. 303
Principlep. 303
Litterbag Constructionp. 304
Calculationsp. 305
Analyses for Soil Microbial Biomassp. 305
The Chloroform-Fumigation K[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]-Extraction Methodp. 305
Principlep. 305
Preparation and Handling of Potassium Sulfatep. 306
Sample Preparationp. 306
Potassium Sulfate Extractionsp. 306
Chloroform Fumigationp. 306
Chloroform Removalp. 307
Calculationsp. 307
Sampling and Enumeration of Nematodesp. 308
Principlep. 308
Sampling Considerationsp. 308
Sampling Tool and Precautionsp. 309
Nematode Extraction: Baermann Funnel Methodp. 309
Principlep. 309
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 310
Procedurep. 310
Killing and Fixing Nematodes with Hot and Cold Formalin (5%)p. 311
Materials and Supplies Neededp. 311
Procedurep. 311
Sampling and Enumeration of Microarthropodsp. 311
Principlep. 311
Methods for the Study of Microarthropodsp. 312
Samplingp. 312
Extraction of Microarthropods from Samplesp. 313
Sample Sorting and Identificationp. 315
Sampling and Enumeration of Macroarthropodsp. 317
Principlep. 317
Methods for Sampling Macroarthropodsp. 317
Samplingp. 317
Berlese or Tullgren Extractionp. 318
Flotationp. 318
Emergence Trapsp. 318
Pitfall Trappingp. 318
Sampling and Enumeration of Earthwormsp. 320
Principlep. 320
Collection of Earthwormsp. 320
Passive Techniquesp. 320
Behavioral Techniquesp. 320
Indirect Techniquesp. 323
Identification of Earthwormsp. 323
Sampling and Enumeration of Enchytraeidsp. 323
Principlep. 323
Collection of Enchytraeidsp. 324
Identification of Enchytraeidsp. 325
Referencesp. 327
Indexp. 375
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780121797263
ISBN-10: 0121797260
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 408
Published: 2nd August 2004
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.63
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised