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Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry - A. Mozumder

Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry

Hardcover

Published: 1st July 1999
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This book describes the physical and chemical effects of radiation interaction with matter. Beginning with the physical basis for the absorption of charged particle radiations, Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry provides a systematic account of the formation of products, including the nature and properties of intermediate species. Developed from first principles, the coverage of fundamentals and applications will appeal to an interdisciplinary audience of radiation physicists and radiation biologists. Only an undergraduate background in chemistry and physics is assumed as a prerequisite for the understanding of applications in research and industry.
Key Features
* Provides a working knowledge of radiation effects for students and non-experts
* Stresses the role of the electron both as a radiation and as a reactant species
* Contains clear diagrams of track models
* Includes a chapter on applications
* Written by an expert with more than thirty years of experience in a premiere research laboratory
* Culled from the author's painstaking research of journals and other publications over several decades

"Mozumder's book can be highly recommended to a large community of chemists, physicists, and biologists." --J.P. Adloff, Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie 214/10

"Mozumder (Univ. of Notre Dame, Indiana) has written a resource for practitioners of radiation chemistry, which will serve them well since he is a recognized expert in this field. This is a book...providing insight as well as a compendium of references and sources of ongoing research." --CHOICE, May 2000

Prefacep. xv
Introduction
Historical and Classical Radiation Studiesp. 1
Relevance of Radiation Chemistry to Basic and Applied Sciencesp. 3
Scope and Limitationp. 4
Referencesp. 4
Interaction of Radiation with Matter: Energy Transfer from Fast Charged Particles
Particles and Radiations: Light and Heavy Particlesp. 5
Principal Considerations Related to Energy Transfer from Charged Particlesp. 6
Mechanism of Energy Transferp. 6
Behavior of Deposited Energy with Respect to Localizationp. 7
Time Scale of Eventsp. 8
Theory of Stopping Power of Fast Charged Particlesp. 11
General Description of Degradation Processesp. 11
Stopping Power and LETp. 11
Bohr's Classical Theoryp. 12
The Bethe Theoryp. 15
Corrections to the Basic Stopping Power Formulap. 17
Stopping Powers of Compounds and Mixturesp. 18
Discussion of Stopping Power Theoriesp. 19
Mean Excitation Potentialp. 19
Range and Stragglingp. 20
Phenomena at Low Velocitiesp. 25
Heavy Particles: Charge Exchange and Nuclear Stoppingp. 25
Electrons: Conjectures Regarding Energy Loss of Slow Electronsp. 26
Phase Effect on Electron Stoppingp. 32
Miscellaneous Considerationsp. 34
Thin Absorbersp. 34
Generic Effectsp. 35
Cerenkov Radiationp. 36
Plasmon Excitationp. 36
Referencesp. 37
Structure of Charged Particle Tracks in Condensed Media
Stopping Power in Water for Various Charged Particlesp. 41
The Electronp. 41
The Muonp. 43
The Protonp. 44
The Carbon Nucleusp. 45
Fission Fragmentsp. 46
Fate of Deposited Energy: Ionization, Dissociation, Transfer, and Luminescencep. 47
Distribution of Energy on a Molecular Time Scalep. 50
Charged Particle Tracks in Liquidsp. 50
General Descriptionp. 50
Phenomena Requiring a Track Modelp. 51
Track Effects in Radiation Chemistryp. 52
Structure of Tracksp. 52
Low LETp. 53
Intermediate LETp. 56
High LETp. 59
Two Special Casesp. 66
Referencesp. 67
Ionization and Excitation Phenomena
General Featuresp. 71
Ionization and Appearance Potentialsp. 71
Primary and Secondary Ionsp. 74
Nature of Excited Statesp. 76
Ionization Efficiency: Superexcited Statesp. 77
Mechanisms of Excited State Formationp. 78
Light Absorptionp. 79
Direct Excitation by Charged-Particle Impactp. 80
Ion Neutralizationp. 82
Dissociation from Ionized or Superexcited Statesp. 83
Energy Transferp. 83
Resonance Energy Transferp. 84
Collisional Energy Transferp. 86
Decay of Excited Statesp. 87
Internal Conversion and Intersystem Crossingp. 88
Unimolecular and Bimolecular Chemical Processesp. 89
Waterp. 90
Carbon Dioxidep. 90
Ammoniap. 90
Hydrocarbonsp. 90
Luminescencep. 91
Impact Ionization and Photoionizationp. 93
Photoionization and Photodetachmentp. 99
Oscillator Strength and Sum Rulesp. 101
The W Valuep. 104
Some Special Considerationsp. 109
Condensed Phase Effectsp. 109
Yields of Excited States in the Radiolysis of liquidsp. 111
Excess Energy in Ionizationp. 114
The Auger Effect and K-Processesp. 114
Ionization and Excitation Distribution in Spursp. 114
Referencesp. 116
Radiation Chemistry of Gases
Mechanisms of Reactions in the Gas Phasep. 122
Ion-Molecule Reactionsp. 122
Hydride Transfer Reactionp. 123
H[subscript 2]-Transfer Reactionsp. 123
H Transfer Reactionsp. 124
H[subscript 2] Transfer Reactionsp. 124
Proton Transfer Reactionsp. 124
Condensation Reactionsp. 125
Fragmentationp. 125
Dissociation of Excited Moleculesp. 126
Neutralizationp. 127
Chain Reactionsp. 128
Radiolysis of Some Common Gases and Mixturesp. 129
Diatomic Gases and Mixturesp. 129
Hydrogenp. 129
Nitrogenp. 129
Oxygenp. 130
Carbon Monoxidep. 131
Hydrogen-Chlorine Mixturep. 131
Polyatomic Gasesp. 131
Water Vaporp. 131
Carbon Dioxidep. 133
Ammoniap. 133
Methanep. 133
Ethanep. 134
Ethylenep. 135
Acetylenep. 136
Some Theoretical Considerationsp. 136
The Quasi-equilibrium Theory (QET)p. 136
Ion-Molecule Reactionp. 138
Referencesp. 142
The Solvated Electron
Backgroundp. 145
The Hydrated Electronp. 147
Methods of Formation of the Hydrated Electronp. 147
Chemical Methodsp. 148
Photochemical Methodp. 150
Radiation-Chemical Methodp. 151
Yieldp. 152
The Effect of pHp. 154
The Effect of Temperaturep. 155
The Effect of Pressurep. 156
The LET Effectp. 156
The Time Dependence of the Hydrated Electron Yieldp. 156
The Spectrum and Other Physical Propertiesp. 158
The Solvated Electron in Alcohols and Other Polar Liquidsp. 159
Trapped and Solvated Electrons at Low Temperaturesp. 163
Theoretical Models of the Solvated Electronp. 166
Energetic and Configurational Stabilityp. 173
Coordination Numberp. 174
Heat of Solutionp. 174
Optical Absorptionp. 174
Mobilityp. 175
Threshold of Photoionization into a Vacuump. 175
Reactions of the Solvated Electronp. 178
Reactions of the Hydrated Electronp. 178
Reactions with Water and Products of Water Radiolysisp. 178
Reactions with Inorganic Compounds and Ionsp. 183
Reactions with Organic Compoundsp. 185
Reactions of Other Solvated Electronsp. 186
Some Theoretical Features of Reactions of Solvated Electronsp. 187
Referencesp. 192
Spur Theory of Radiation Chemical Yields: Diffusion and Stochastic Models
Early Studiesp. 199
The Samuel-Magee Modelp. 200
The Ganguly-Magee Modelp. 204
Other One-Radical Models and Limitationsp. 207
Multiradical Diffusion Modelsp. 209
Kuppermann's Modelp. 210
Schwarz's Modelp. 212
Reconciliation of Apparent Contradictions in the Diffusion Model for Water Radiolysis According to Schwarzp. 216
Evolution of the Yield of the Hydrated Electronp. 217
Other Diffusion Modelsp. 218
Stochastic Kineticsp. 219
Monte Carlo (MC) Simulationp. 220
The Master Equation (ME) Approachp. 221
The Independent Reaction Time Modelp. 222
Reactive Productsp. 223
Resultsp. 224
Other Stochastic Modelsp. 224
Comparison with Experiment: The Case of Water Radiolysisp. 226
Kinetics of Electron-Ion Recombination in Irradiated Dielectric Liquidsp. 229
General Considerations: The Geminate Pairp. 229
Laplace Transformation and Scavengingp. 230
Evaluation of Diffusion Modelsp. 232
Prescribed Diffusion Treatmentp. 232
The Eigenvalue Methodp. 234
The Hong-Noolandi Treatmentp. 236
Stochastic Treatmentsp. 238
Referencesp. 243
Electron Thermalization and Related Phenomena
Degradation Mechanisms of Subexcitation and Subvibrational Electronsp. 248
Electron Thermalization in the Gas Phasep. 250
Review of Relevant Experimentsp. 250
Theoretical Methodsp. 253
Electron Thermalization in the Condensed Phasep. 263
Thermalization Distance Distribution in Liquid Hydrocarbonsp. 263
Electron Thermalization in Polar Mediap. 271
Electron Thermalization in High-Mobility Liquidsp. 274
The Fokker-Planck Approach to Thermalizationp. 275
Electron Thermalization in Liquefied Rare Gasesp. 278
Referencesp. 282
Electron Escape: The Free-Ion Yield
Summary of Experimental Results at Low LETp. 286
Onsager's Theory of Geminate-Ion Recombinationp. 291
Stationary Case: Simplified Treatmentp. 292
Kineticsp. 295
Case of Multiple Ion-Pairsp. 297
Dependence of Free-Ion Yield on Molecular Structure and Mobilityp. 303
Dependence of Free-Ion Yield on External Fieldp. 305
Free-Ion Yield in Liquefied Rare Gasesp. 309
Polar Mediap. 312
Referencesp. 314
Electron Mobility in Liquid Hydrocarbons
Summary of Experiments on Electron Mobilityp. 318
Temperature Dependencep. 322
Dependence on Molecular Structurep. 323
Drift and Hall Mobilitiesp. 324
Field Dependence of Mobilityp. 326
Theoretical Models of Electron Transportp. 331
Hopping Modelsp. 336
Two-State Modelsp. 338
The Quasi-ballistic Modelp. 340
Thermodynamics of Electron Trapping and Electron Solvation in Liquid Hydrocarbonsp. 347
Thermodynamics of Electron Trapping and Solvation in the Quasi-ballistic Modelp. 351
Referencesp. 357
Radiation Chemical Applications in Science and Industry
Dosimetryp. 363
Chemical Dosimetersp. 364
The Fricke Dosimeterp. 365
Other Addition Reactionsp. 371
Industrial Synthesis and Processingp. 366
Addition Reactionsp. 368
Alkylationp. 368
Halogenationp. 369
Oxidation, Sulfoxidation, and Sulfochlorinationp. 370
Other Addition Reactionsp. 371
Substitution Reactionsp. 371
Other Reactionsp. 372
Sterilization of Medical Equipment and Disposablesp. 373
Waste Treatment by Irradiationp. 374
Treatment of Flue Gasp. 376
Waste Water Treatmentp. 377
Food Irradiationp. 378
Radiation Chemistry of Food Componentsp. 380
Carbohydratesp. 381
Proteinsp. 381
Fatsp. 381
Vitaminsp. 382
Identification of Irradiated Foodp. 382
Clearance and Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foodp. 382
Other Use of Low-LET Radiationp. 383
Graftingp. 383
Curingp. 383
Low Energy Ion Implantationp. 384
Referencesp. 387
Indexp. 389
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780125093903
ISBN-10: 012509390X
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 392
Published: 1st July 1999
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.66