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Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2e : Optics and Photonics Series - Katsunari Okamoto

Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2e

Optics and Photonics Series


Published: 1st December 2005
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"Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides" is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Katsunari Okamoto has presented this difficult technology clearly and concisely with several illustrations and equations. Optical theory encompassed in this reference includes coupled mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, finite element method, beam propagation method, staircase concatenation method, along with several central theorems and formulas.
Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate optical atmospheres.
* Exceptional new chapter on Arrayed-Waveguide Grating (AWG)
* In depth discussion of Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs)
* Thorough explanation of Multimode Interference Devices (MMI)
* Full coverage of polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

"...the second edition of Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides emphasizes optical theory, including coupled-mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, and finite element, beam propagation and staircase concatenation methods...A new chapter on arrayed-waveguide grating discusses the principles of operation, fundamental characteristics and analytical treatment of the grating demultiplexing properties." - Photonics Spectra, Sept. 2006

Preface to the First editionp. xiii
Preface to the Second editionp. xv
Wave Theory of Optical Waveguidesp. 1
Waveguide Structurep. 1
Formation of Guided Modesp. 2
Maxwell's Equationsp. 7
Propagating Powerp. 10
Planar Optical Waveguidesp. 13
Slab Waveguidesp. 13
Derivation of Basic Equationsp. 13
Dispersion Equations for TE and TM Modesp. 16
Computation of Propagation Constantp. 19
Electric Field Distributionp. 22
Dispersion Equation for TM Modep. 25
Rectangular Waveguidesp. 27
Basic Equationsp. 27
Dispersion Equations for E[superscript x subscript pq] and E[superscript y subscript pq] Modesp. 29
Kumar's Methodp. 31
Effective Index Methodp. 37
Radiation Field from Waveguidep. 41
Fresnel and Fraunhofer Regionsp. 41
Radiation Pattern of Gaussian Beamp. 43
Multimode Interference (MMI) Devicep. 46
Optical Fibersp. 57
Basic Equationsp. 57
Wave Theory of Step-index Fibersp. 58
TE Modesp. 58
TM Modesp. 62
Hybrid Modesp. 63
Optical Power Carried by Each Modep. 67
TE Modesp. 68
TM Modesp. 69
Hybrid Modesp. 70
Linearly Polarized (LP) Modesp. 71
Unified Dispersion Equation for LP Modesp. 71
Dispersion Characteristics of LP Modesp. 75
Propagating Power of LP Modesp. 78
Fundamental HE[subscript 11] Modep. 80
Dispersion Characteristics of Step-index Fibersp. 83
Signal Distortion Caused by Group Velocity Dispersionp. 83
Mechanisms Causing Dispersionp. 88
Derivation of Delay-time Formulap. 92
Chromatic Dispersionp. 96
Zero-dispersion Wavelengthp. 102
Wave Theory of Graded-index Fibersp. 103
Basic Equations and Mode Concepts in Graded-index Fibersp. 103
Analysis of Graded-index Fibers by the WKB Methodp. 108
Dispersion Characteristics of Graded-index Fibersp. 113
Relation Between Dispersion and Transmission Capacityp. 117
Multimode Fiberp. 119
Single-mode Fiberp. 119
Birefringent Optical Fibersp. 120
Two Orthogonally-polarized Modes in Nominally Single-mode Fibersp. 120
Derivation of Basic Equationsp. 123
Elliptical-core Fibersp. 126
Modal Birefringencep. 127
Polarization Mode Dispersionp. 130
Dispersion Control in Single-Mode Optical Fibersp. 134
Dispersion Compensating Fibersp. 134
Dispersion-shifted Fibersp. 135
Dispersion Flattened Fibersp. 139
Broadly Dispersion Compensating Fibersp. 142
Photonic Crystal Fibersp. 144
Coupled Mode Theoryp. 159
Derivation of Coupled Mode Equations Based on Perturbation Theoryp. 159
Codirectional Couplersp. 166
Contradirectional Coupling in Corrugated Waveguidesp. 169
Transmission and Reflection Characteristics in Uniform Gratingsp. 169
Phase-shift Gratingp. 175
Derivation of Coupling Coefficientsp. 177
Coupling Coefficients for Slab Waveguidesp. 177
Coupling Coefficients for Rectangular Waveguidesp. 178
Derivation of Coupling Coefficients Based on Mode Interferencep. 180
Coupling Coefficients for Optical Fibersp. 183
Coupling Coefficients for Corrugated Waveguidesp. 187
Optical Waveguide Devices using Directional Couplersp. 195
Mach-Zehnder Interferometersp. 195
Ring Resonatorsp. 197
Bistable Devicesp. 200
Fiber Bragg Gratingsp. 203
Nonlinear Optical Effects in Optical Fibersp. 209
Figure of Merit for Nonlinear Effectsp. 209
Optical Kerr Effectp. 211
Self-phase Modulationp. 211
Nonlinear Schrodinger Equationp. 213
Optical Solitonsp. 217
Fundamental and Higher-Order Solitonsp. 217
Fiber Loss Compensation by Optical Amplificationp. 223
Modulational Instabilityp. 225
Dark Solitonsp. 229
Optical Pulse Compressionp. 230
Light Scattering in Isotropic Mediap. 233
Vibration of One-Dimensional Latticep. 233
Selection Rules for Light Scattering by Phononsp. 236
Stimulated Raman Scatteringp. 240
Stimulated Brillouin Scatteringp. 243
Second-Harmonic Generationp. 246
Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifierp. 250
Four-wave Mixing in Optical Fiberp. 252
Finite Element Methodp. 261
Introductionp. 261
Finite Element Method Analysis of Slab Waveguidesp. 262
Variational Formulationp. 262
Discretization of the Functionalp. 264
Dispersion Equation Based on the Stationary Conditionp. 266
Dispersion Characteristics of Graded-index Slab Waveguidesp. 269
Finite Element Method Analysis of Optical Fibersp. 273
Variational Formulationp. 273
Discretization of the Functionalp. 275
Dispersion Equation Based on the Stationary Conditionp. 275
Single-mode Conditions of Graded-index Fibersp. 277
Variational Expression for the Delay Timep. 279
Finite Element Method Analysis of Rectangular Waveguidesp. 284
Vector and Scalar Analysesp. 284
Variational Formulation and Discretization into Finite Number of Elementsp. 284
Dispersion Equation Based on the Stationary Conditionp. 289
Stress Analysis of Optical Waveguidesp. 298
Energy Principlep. 298
Plane Strain and Plane Stressp. 301
Basic Equations for Displacement, Strain and Stressp. 301
Formulation of the Total Potential Energyp. 303
Solution of the Problem by the Stationary Conditionp. 308
Combination of Finite-Element Waveguide and Stress Analysisp. 309
Semi-Vector FEM Analysis of High-Index Contrast Waveguidesp. 315
E-field Formulationp. 316
H-field Formulationp. 317
Steady State Mode Analysisp. 318
Beam Propagation Methodp. 329
Basic Equations for Beam Propagation Method Based on the FFTp. 329
Wave Propagation in Optical Waveguidesp. 329
Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibersp. 331
FFTBPM Analysis of Optical Wave Propagationp. 332
Formal Solution Using Operatorsp. 332
Concrete Numerical Procedures Using Split-step Fourier Algorithmp. 334
FFTBPM Analysis of Optical Pulse Propagationp. 336
Discrete Fourier Transformp. 339
Fast Fourier Transformp. 346
Formulation of Numerical Procedures Using Discrete Fourier Transformp. 348
Applications of FFTBPMp. 350
Finite Difference Method Analysis of Planar Optical Waveguidesp. 364
Derivation of Basic Equationsp. 364
Transparent Boundary Conditionsp. 366
Solution of Tri-diagonal Equationsp. 368
FDMBPM Analysis of Rectangular Waveguidesp. 370
FDMBPM Analysis of Optical Pulse Propagationp. 373
Semi-Vector FDMBPM Analysis of High-Index Contrast Waveguidesp. 377
Quasi-TE Modesp. 378
Quasi-TM Modesp. 380
Polarization Splitter Using Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Waveguidep. 382
Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Methodp. 383
Staircase Concatenation Methodp. 399
Staircase Approximation of Waveguide Boundaryp. 399
Amplitudes and Phases Between the Connecting Interfacesp. 403
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Couplersp. 408
Wavelength-flattened Couplersp. 408
Planar Lightwave Circuitsp. 417
Waveguide Fabricationp. 418
N x N Star Couplerp. 419
Arrayed-waveguide Gratingp. 423
Principle of Operation and Fundamental Characteristicsp. 423
Analytical Treatment of AWG Demultiplexing Propertiesp. 428
Waveguide Layout of AWGp. 434
Gaussian Spectral Response AWGp. 436
Polarization Dependence of Pass Wavelengthp. 439
Vernier Technique for the Center Wavelength Adjustmentp. 442
Crosstalk and Dispersion Characteristics of AWGsp. 443
Crosstalk of AWGsp. 443
Dispersion Characteristics of AWGsp. 448
Functional AWGsp. 458
Flat Spectral Response AWGp. 458
Loss Reduction in AWGp. 473
Unequal Channel Spacing AWGp. 476
Variable Bandwidth AWGp. 478
Uniform-loss and Cyclic-frequency (ULCF) AWGp. 479
Athermal (Temperature Insensitive) AWGp. 484
Multiwavelength Simultaneous Monitoring Device Using AWGp. 490
Phase Error Compensation of AWGp. 495
Tandem AWG Configurationp. 499
Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)p. 500
N x N Matrix Switchesp. 505
Lattice-form Programmable Dispersion Equalizersp. 508
Temporal Pulse Waveform Shapersp. 511
Coherent Optical Transversal Filtersp. 515
Optical Label Recognition Circuit for Photonic Label Switch Routerp. 519
Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensatorp. 522
Hybrid Integration Technology Using PLC Platformsp. 524
Several Important Theorems and Formulasp. 535
Gauss's Theoremp. 535
Green's Theoremp. 539
Stokes' Theoremp. 540
Integral Theorem of Helmholtz and Kirchhoffp. 545
Fresnel-Kirchhoff Diffraction Formulap. 547
Formulas for Vector Analysisp. 551
Formulas in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinatesp. 553
Cylindrical Coordinatesp. 553
Spherical Coordinatesp. 554
Indexp. 555
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780125250962
ISBN-10: 0125250967
Series: Optics and Photonics Series
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 584
Published: 1st December 2005
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.02
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised